. India is a highly collectivisticsociety. Collectivist cultures value relationships and social intimacy withtheir immediate and extended family/ friends (Gopalan & Rivera, 1997).Indian cultures are known to have closely knitted social groups that aredistinguished through their common caste, religion, etc (Gopalan & Rivera,1997). In the workplace, it is common for employers to use their biases whenmaking decisions such as hiring to create a closely-knitted work environment.For example, many employers choose to hire, promote employees that fall intheir own social subgroups and discriminate those who do not (Gopalan &Rivera, 1997).

Indian culture is highlycharacterized by masculine attributes where wealth and financial achievementsare considered the optipotique ofsuccess. In India, one of the quickest means to climb up on the social ladderis through acquiring a huge sum of wealth which improves one’s status andreputation in society(). Thisexplain why India’s culture is highly dedicated to their work life and “monetaryforms of compensation and job security” are key motivators to increase jobperformance (Gopalan & Rivera, 1997). Indianculture also has a low uncertainty avoidance meaning the nation is comfortablewith uncertainty and ambiguity with fewer rules and regulations controllingtheir daily lives (Hofstede Insights, 2018). In a job setting, employeesexperienced an increase in job performance when given fewer rules opposed tohaving more rules and regulations ( ). Indian culture also has a high-powerdistance, which is reflective of the culture’s hierarchical caste structure.The caste system is shown in the country’s workforce where members of thehigher caste have higher job positions/ salaries whereas members of the lowercastes tend to have lower job positions (Gopalan & Rivera, 1997). Inaddition, the high-power distance makes it difficult for employees in a lowerposition to communicate openly to their managers and employers.

For example,during meetings employees are discouraged from voicing their opinions orproviding feedback in fear of punishment they may face by their employer indoing so (Harrell, 2016).2.         Comparedto India, Canada has a low power distance, with concrete laws and regulationsaimed to promote equality (Government of Canada, 2018). On the other hand,India has a high power distance where some members of society face “unequaldistribution of power” due to the caste system (Nardon & Steers, 2010). AlthoughIndia has some laws and regulations that promote equality amongst its citizens,it is lacking more laws and regulations compared Canada (Government of Canada, 2018).Another major difference is orientation to time. In Canada, decisions are madeto improve future prospects such as environmental laws, infrastructurepolicies. In contrast, decisions in India are influenced by traditions and pastevents such as ancient astrology which plays a significant role in people’slives and is used to predict one’s future and planning future events (Gopalan& Rivera, 1997).

For example, personal and business activities are notscheduled during the unlucky rahu galam and yama gantam time periods (Gopalan& Rivera, 1997). Additionally, Canada is an individualistic society where highlevel of dependency as viewed as being weak whereas India’s collectivisticsociety views dependency as a positive trait. 3.

        Itis likely misunderstandings/difficulties may arise for a Canadian foreigner whileworking in India due to cultural differences including difficulty understandingthe discriminatory caste bias many Indian practice. They may also havedifficulty understanding the past traditonal way of thinking and making decisions.However, I believe the India’s collectivistic culture would be the mostdifficult to adapt to because, Canadian children are taught to be independentand are taught to have an individualistic way of teaching from an early agewhich makes it difficult to adjust to at an older age. 

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