While in a way Reconstruction was a success that to a large extent, it restored the United States as a consolidated nation and by 1877, all of the former Confederate states had designed new constitutions, widely recognized the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, and guaranteed their submission to the U.S government. It also finally resolved the states’ rights v.s federalism debate, which was a long-standing issue. However, Reconstruction failed in achieving many other vita objectives, the most important one that Radical Republican legislation somehow failed to protect the slaves from white persecution. It also failed to create central changes to the social fabric of the south.

Immediately, after President Rutherford B. Hayes forced out the white southern politicians passes black codes, voter qualifications and other anti progressive legislation to turn about  the rights that black had acquired  during Radical Reconstruction.  Therefore, thought the thirteenth Amendment brought some kind of freedom for the African Americans but they gained very little thereafter. The defeated southern states were bitter and hostile  and they were determined to keep the African Americans slaves to  the extent Possible. The rights of African Americans were violated and the blacks were forced to use separate facilities and even were not allowed to sit on juries.  The right to vote given by the Fifteenth Amendment but many of the Southern States developed creative ways to make sure that the blacks are barred and cannot vote. There were many organizations like, Freedman’s Bureau , which tried to help the blacks but they largely failed in their attempt by the anti-organizations groups such as Ku Klux Klan.

The freedom of the blacks to be effective lacked some of the important factors and the . failure of the Republican Congress to break the former slave planation being one of the key one’s. The former slaves were really no better off as they soon realized that whites in the South were still controlling them economically through what was known as share cropping and tenant farming. Sharecroppers were supposed to have a chance to earn more and thus became economically better, however the problem was that by the time they had shared their crops and paid their debts, they had hardly had any money left. At the most, if they were fortunate, they might have the chance to become tenant farmers, but the chances were very low.



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