What are thewestern vital interest in the Middle East?Ø Affordable and secured energy resources must keepflowing to withstand the global economy.
Ø Key waterways such as Suez and the Persian Gulfshould not be exposed to instability and uncertainty.Ø Al-Qaeda and its links should not be given theopportunity to exploit chaos and vacuums of authority to re-establish footholdsin the region.Ø Holding terrorism in check.Ø A safe security surroundings for Israel and thePalestinians to pursue peace should be protected and enhanced, not eroded.Ø Access to oil.Ø Anarchy and chaos should be avoided at all costs,because of the negative attendant consequences of failed states as fertilegrounds for terrorism, access to weapons for militias and the like.Ø Economic stabilization should be followed toprevent the immediate threat of famine and long-term humanitarian disastersthat could destabilise the whole region.
Ø Forestalling the emergence of a hostile regionalhegemon.Ø Avoiding the spread of weapons of massdestruction.Ø Promoting political and economic reform and throughit internal stability.
The attainment of democracy in the region depends also on defendingthese interests. Sadly, none of the above is a top priority for Western leaderswho are either grandstanding for principle’s sake, or doing nothing for fear oftaking between bad and worse.I explain thatthe Middle East was de-democratised because the West rarely saw it as acollection of people with dynamic, rich social-cultural textures. TheWestern power elites viewed the Middle East as no more than a region ofmultiple resources and strategic interests; hence their goal was to keep it”stable” and “manageable”. Ernest Bevin, foreign secretary(1945-51) of imperial Britain, without “its oil and other potentialresources” there was “no hope of our being able to achieve the standardof life at which we are aiming in Great Britain”.They describedcountries as “oil-rich” like Kuwait whereas some othercountries as “oil-less” like Yemen. It is evident how the MiddleEast made any sense to the West only in relation to whether it was”oil-rich” or “oil-less”.
If we see the Middle East contains more than 50 percent ofthe world’s proven reserves but accounts for only about 30 percent ofglobal oil production (though this figure is still higher than in anyother region).Current Status: The U.S. has strongmilitary, security, intelligence, and diplomatic ties with several MiddleEastern nations, including Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and the members of the GulfCooperation Council (GCC). Since the historical and politicalcircumstances that led to the creation of NATO havelargely been absent in the Middle East, the region lacks a similarly strongcollective security organization. Middle Eastern countries traditionally havepreferred to maintain bilateral relationships with the U.S. and generally haveshunned multilateral arrangements because of the lack of trust between Arabstates.
Often, bilateralrelationships between Arab Middle Eastern countries and Western countries,including the U.S., are mysterious.
The opaqueness of these relationshipssometimes generates problems for the U.S. when trying to coordinate defence andsecurity cooperation with European allies active in the region (mainly the U.K.and France).Military training isan important part of these relationships.
The key motivation behind theseexercises is to ensure close and effective coordination with key partners inthe area, demonstrate an enduring U.S. security commitment to regional allies,and train Arab armed forces so that they can assume a larger share ofresponsibility for regional security. In April 2016, the U.S. Naval ForcesCentral Command launched the world’s largest maritime exercise across theMiddle East to demonstrate global resolve in maintaining freedom of navigationand the free flow of maritime commerce.
In addition tomilitary training, U.S. defence relations are underpinned by vast defenceequipment deals. U.S.
military hardware and, to a lesser extent, British andFrench hardware is preferred across the region because of its effectiveness andsymbolic value as a sign of a close security relationship, and much of it hasbeen combat tested. For example, Kuwait, the UAE,Jordan, and Saudi Arabia have over 400 F-15, F-16, and F/A-18 jet fighteraircraft combined. Following the Iran nuclear deal, threatened Arab statesundertook military build-ups and a flood of arms purchases. The U.S. approved$33 billion worth of weapons sales to its Gulf Cooperation Council alliesbetween May 2015 and March 2016.
The six GCC countries received weapons thatincluded ballistic missile defence systems, attack helicopters, advancedfrigates, and anti-armour missiles. The use of U.S.-made hardware helpswith interoperability and lays the foundation for longer-term engagement andcooperation in the region.Eleven months into theTrump presidency, our Middle East policy expanses to a series of stunts an isolated retaliatory attack on Syria foruse of chemical weapons, “decertifying” the Iran deal (to the consternation ofthose egging on the administration, hoping that the European Union and Congresswould act, exactly nothing has happened since President Trump’s announcement ofpresidency and now an announcement that the United States recognizes Jerusalemas the capital of Israel (but won’t be moving the embassy for years, says thesecretary of state). The result is drift, instability and the emergence of theRussia-Iran alliance, not the U.
S.-Israel alliance, as the most dominant in theregion.Recently releasedpreviously confidential emails to then US Secretary of State Hilary Clintonsuggest concerns about energy resources were behind the 2011 NATO interventionin Libya.
The US-based online newspaper Al Monitor reported that the emailsshow French spies secretly organised and funded the Libyan rebels who overthrewGaddafi. According to one of thememos from March 2011 the French intelligence service “indicated that theyexpected the new government of Libya to favour French firms and nationalinterests, particularly regarding the oil industry in Libya. If we see, now theinterest of western countries lie on the oil prices, and also many companiessell their weapons in western countries which is a great benefit for the west.Findings:ü Most of thecountries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economicallyfrom petroleum exports.ü The term”Western world” is sometimes interchangeably used with the term First World or developed countries, stressing the differencebetween First World and the Third World or developing countries.ü It may betempting to oversimplify the conflict as a battle of the West against Islam,just as it is tempting to overstate its origins in the history of Westernintervention and foreign policy.ü The Westhas supported or installed corrupt rulers in several Arab states. Theygive us control of the oil and in return we keep them in power with arms andmoney.
ü The first time aWestern power got interested in the politics of oil in the Middle East wastoward the end of 1914, when British soldiers landed at Basra, in southernIraq, to protect oil supplies from neighbouring Persia.ü Red Line Agreement and the involvement of Americain the Middle East.ü Categorizing countries as rich oil or les oil,this is what they value. It is not about human rights or stabilizing theregion.ü They sell their products specially weapons to easterncountries, they also supply lots of heavy weapons to Israel as well in order tokeep it safe from neighbouring countries.ü They fight to have access to oil resources in themiddle which is the greatest source of oil in the world. ü They do whatever they can to preserve theirinterest, take the example sanctions in Iran which is a threat for US.
ü De-democratization as a strategy to keep theregion stable and manageable, de-democratization of Iran which was made by Dr.Musaddiq.ü Keep the ruler in their side and have access tothe oil.ü Al-Qaeda and its affiliates should not be giventhe opportunity to exploit chaos and vacuums of authority to re-establishfootholds in the region.
Recommendations:The various peoples and nations of the MiddleEast have all experienced differentdecolonization and independence processes. While Islam is a common factor thatbinds together these peoples and nations, there are many regional culturaldifferences as well. Each of these nations follows different paths towarddevelopment, modernization, social change, and economic growth. The issue ofOccupied Palestine remains a contentious and unresolved matter that has madelasting peace in the region impossible. Arab nations are bound together by thepolitics of Arab identity, but this can be a nebulous connection at times. Fortheir part, Iran and Turkey have national identities that are remarkablydifferent from those of Arab nations.
As far as relations between the MiddleEast and the rest of the world are concerned, the countries and peoples of theregion see themselves as part of a larger whole, yet wish to remain independentand to develop at their own pace and in their own way. Considering the abovefollowing recommendation can be made:v Western world whether it is US , UK, France orany other one should take into account the benefits of eastern world, don’tdestroy lives of people in this region by the name of human rights, regionalstability which has been a abusive weapon for decades and ruined millions inthe region like Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, etc.v Arabic rulers should stop keeping people blindand focus on education. It is shame for them as their rulers.v Countries in the east should not part from eachother and don’t be deceived by lies of west, for that they should work onsimilarities of Islam rather than of being as Shia or Sunni which has been agood hand for use of western powers. For example, Iran should work with Saudior Iraq with Iran, together stronger.v Oil control should be taken into account as it isa non-renewable energy, in the long run it can damage the region.v They should come together and address theirproblem such as Holly land conflict between Palestine and Israel, why Trump?v The only way to ease tension is by Westerners whoshould tolerate diversity, renounce superiority, reconsider their doublestandards, and recognize Arabs and Muslims as central parts of the socialfabric.
ConclusionIt is claimed that the relationship between the Middle East and the West(the USA included) has been marked by intervention, stereotyping, andmisunderstanding, and that it has been, unfortunately, changing for the worsebecause of the double standards employed by the West and the unconditionalsupport for Israel. Despite this situation, a better relationship can exist ifWesterners go beyond stereotypes, adopt a balanced policy in the Middle East,and treat Arabs and Muslims as peers. The discussion demonstrates that theWest-Middle East relationship has been lacking balance, and, thus, it has beenbringing about tension and violence, impeding understanding, furtheringseparation, fuelling mistrust, and thwarting any attempt at achieving rapport.It also shows that the way to ease tension is by Westerners’ toleratingdiversity, renouncing superiority, reconsidering their double standards, andrecognizing Arabs and Muslims as central parts of the social fabric. It hasbeen shown that the Western policy in the Middle East has been biased, and thatWesterners’ recognizing Middle Easterners as they are, adopting a balancedpolicy, and tolerating diversity constitute a recipe for a better futurerelationship.