Whatare some foundational concepts and components of a computer network?            Anetwork is made up of a group of devices (usually called Nodes) which areinterconnected through a communication link. Nodes can be any peripheraldevices like printers, fax machines, or computers; any device capable ofsending or receiving data over a network (TestOut Network Pro, 2012).             Alot of networks use distributed processing, which means a task is distributedamong multiple computers in order to increase the performance, efficiency,reliability and security of the network.

Communication between two or morecomputers is usually done through a link. This link is the communication mediumbetween the machines and can be established as either point to point or multipoint.A point to point communication provides a dedicated link for communicationbetween the two devices (e.g. communication between a TV and remote control viainfra-red). Multipoint communication is when multiple devices share a singlelink and the whole bandwidth of the link is distributed among the connecteddevices, (e.

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g. the sharing of a printer among multiple computers in an office).            PhysicalTopology of a network is when the design of the network is laid out physically(Razzaq& Rathore, 2010). Various topological types are mentioned below (Pandya,2013).            Meshtopology is when each communicating device/node has a dedicated point to pointlink/carrier to every other device. In Star topology, devices are not linkeddirectly with each other rather they have a dedicated point to point linkconnected to a central hub (controller). For a Bus topology, a single cableacts as a backbone to provide a link to all connected devices in a network.

In aRing topology, every device is connected to its immediate neighbor devicephysically or logically. These are the different types ofnetwork:·        LAN (LocalArea Network)·        MAN(Metropolitan Area Network)·        WAN(Wide Area Network)            LocalArea Networks are the smallest type of network and are privately owned to beused for personal computers or company offices in a single building.Metropolitan Area Networks may cover an entire city and are larger than LAN butsmaller than WAN.

An example of a MAN is a cable television network implementedin a city. A Wide Area Network is the largest network, it spans a largegeographical area and it contains a large collection of hosts to run anyapplication program, hosts are connected by a subnet and the host is owned by acustomer. In order to communicate over anetwork, five basic components are required: ·        Message:Message is the information that needs to be communicated. Messages can be inthe form of pictures, numbers, audio or video etc.·        Sender:This is the device which sends the message. It can be any computer, microphone,telephone, fax, video camera etc.·        Receiver:The devices which receive message or information is the receiver.

E.g.computer, telephone, television etc.·        TransmissionMedium: This is the mode of communication through which the informationtraverses e.g. radio waves, infra-red etc.·        Protocol:Protocol is a set of rules agreed upon by either party for communication. It isbasically an agreement for the communication to happen.

Whatare the components of an internet protocol version four (IPv4) IP address?            Every networkis identified by a unique network number and every machine connected to thisnetwork must have a unique IP (Internet Protocol) address. IP addresses arecreated whenever we register a device to a network.             IPV4address is a 32-bit IP address which uniquely identifies an interface of anetwork on a machine. IPV4 address has a dotted-decimal format written indecimal digit and is formatted as four 8-bit fields separated by periods. Every8-bit field represents a byte of IPV4. An IPV4 address is divided into twoparts, host and network.

Here’s an example of IPV4:                         TheNetwork section consists of two bytes of an IPV4 address. It identifies aunique number assigned to a network. The Host section of the IPV4 address isthe number which is uniquely assigned to every host that we own. It uniquelyidentifies the machines on a network. For every host/node on a network, the networkaddress number would be same, but the host number would be different. Sometimeslocal networks with a large number of hosts are also divided into subnets. Ifwe opt to divide a network into subnets, then it would be necessary to assign asubnet number. Whenshould a network administrator assign static IP addresses to network devices?Usually, a static IP address isassigned for very small networks, network devices and servers.

If a networkcontains a lot of devices it might pose a challenge. Moreover, static IPs arealso assigned if a high level of security is required. If DHCP is the target ofmost network hacker then,  for securityreasons, all associated devices could be assigned a static IP.

A static IP couldalso be assigned if all the devices on a network are not going to be physicallymoved. Assigning static IPs to a large organization would pose a hugeadministrative burden. Static IPs give administrators a lot of control,allowing them to whitelist devices based on their MAC addresses and also todevise specific IP based rules in a firewall.

ReferencesPandya, K. (2013). NetworkStructure or Topology. International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science andManagement Studies, 1(2).Razzaq, A., & Rathore,M. S. (2010, September).

An approach towards resource efficient virtual networkembedding. In Evolving Internet (INTERNET), 2010 Second International Conference on (pp.68-73). IEEE.

TestOut NetworkPro. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.testout.com/  

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