V+J

Tyrone Steele
Mrs. Garton
British Literature 
17 January 2018
Annotated Bibliography
Topic: Considering recent technology advancements, should self-driving cars to be legal. This paper will focus on the current safety regulations for self driving cars, and are self driving cars safe enough to be considered a legal way of transportation. This paper will inform readers about the advancements and dangers of self-driving cars. 
Hasley, Ashley III “The Driverless-Car Debate: How Safe is Safe Enough?” Washington Post, 13 Dec 2017, SIRS Issues Researcher, http://sks.sirs.com. This article debates if Self driving cars are safe enough for the public roads. “The speed with which driverless cars are accepted by the public may well be determined by this question: How safe is safe enough?” Since Driverless cars are developing quickly, when they arrive on a road near you will they be safe enough to keep you out of harms way in the event of an accident. This article states that there are many misconceptions about autonomous cars and their safety status, sources are saying that they are 94% less likely to crash, well thats because they are less of them on the road than traditional cars. So as the numbers of autonomous cars increase, that percentage will decrease along with the new amount of crashes that will incur.  Nevertheless, the article states that driverless cars are only 10% more safe that a non distracted human driver. This Article includes detailed information about current and projected safety in self driving cars. This is a reliable source because it was reported by the Washington Post, a reliable news source. This is a helpful source because, it gives out more information about the subject than meets the eye with traditional broadcasted news. The author writes about the less than stellar percentages of improvement with self driving cars compared to conventional cars. “Is ‘safe enough’ 10 percent safer than where we are by manually driving?” asked Bryan Reimer, associate director of the transportation center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “One thing that I think is really going to limit our ability to see this technology proliferate is a societal acceptance on the definition of what is safe enough.” The author debates the topic of is a 10 percent improvement safe enough for society to accept. “Without a generally accepted definition of what constitutes a sufficiently safe driverless car, the industry could suffer from setbacks caused by a combination of public apprehension and news headlines.” Society is quick to make assumptions about self driving cars and how “dangerous” they can be. “When a truck backed into a self-driving bus in Las Vegas last month, one headline mirrored many others: “Las Vegas’ self-driving bus crashes in first hour of service.”” The Author  is talking about the increasing popularity of Self driving cars and their acceptance in society. Moreover, they are portrayed as deadly weapons in the media, and are mis judged by them. She goes on to talk about a death that happened in a driving assisted vehicle that is not a fully self driving car but was portrayed as one in the media. The driver had the system engaged and was not paying attention. A semi passed through the traffic and the vehicle did not see it and crashed into killing the driver. After investigations the IIHS determined it to be the drivers fault, since he was technically the operator of the vehicle. 
Freedman, David “Self Driving Trucks” Technology Review, Inc Mar/Apr 2017, SIRS Issues Researcher, http://sks.sirs.com This article discusses the effects of self driving technology in semi trucks, and if they will handle driving situations better than a human can or will they operate worse, we do know that if they do become advanced enough to not need a operator they will put a lot of people out of job. Which is one of the main concerns, for the upcoming self driving advancements. “Could a computer have done better at the wheel? Or would it have done worse? We will probably find out in the next few years, because multiple companies are now testing self-driving trucks. Although many technical problems are still unresolved, proponents claim that self-driving trucks will be safer and less costly.” The author discussed a collision that killed another motorist, and the driver of the truck felt responsible for the death, he wondered that if the truck was a self driving would it be able to figure out to avoid the collision and not have killed the driver. The article goes on to talk about the development of OTTO which is a self driving technology for trucks that is in the development stages. “Last October an Otto-outfitted self-driving truck carried 2,000 cases of Budweiser beer 200 kilometers down Interstate 25 in Colorado from Fort Collins to Colorado Springs–while the truck’s only human driver sat in the sleeper berth at the back of the cab without touching the vehicle’s controls.” This article presents the pros and cons of self driving cars along with detailed information to back it up for both sides of the argument. This is a reliable source because it comes from a well known technology magazine that gives detailed information on their reports. This information is relevant because if comments about the self driving technology. It is also helpful because it takes the self driving to another market than just passenger cars. 
Biba, Erin “What the World Will Look Like Without Drivers” Newsweek, Jan 22, 2016, SIRS Issues Researcher, http://sks.sirs.com The article discussed the lack of appetite for driving, more young drivers are not getting their licenses in favor of public, and ride sharing platforms. Which caused a spike in interest for self driving cars. “Car culture was pervasive in the United States for years: The annual number of miles traveled by auto rose decade after decade. Until 2004, that is, when it stopped short. And today, younger Americans are changing their minds about the car. The number of high school seniors with driver’s licenses dropped from 85 percent in 1996 to 73 percent in 2010. “Young Americans drive less than older Americans and use public transportation more, and often use multiple modes of travel during a typical day or week,” concludes a 2014 U.S. Public Research Interest Group study.” This article goes over how self driving cars will change the shape of our lives. From, picking up the kids from the school, taking them to soccer practice. Having one pick you up from the movie and be taken home. This article is reliable because it comes from a well vowed for newspaper company. The information is relevant because it outlines the positives and benefits of self driving cars and their usefulness. It is helpful because it gives positive perspective of self driving cars. 
Seidenberg, Steven “Behind the Wheel” ABA Journal, Jul 2017, SIRS Issues Researcher, http://sks.sirs.com This article discusses one of the most covered stories about a computer operated vehicle, due to it causing the first death in the United States by a Self Driving car. “On May 7, 2016, Joshua Brown made history. The Canton, Ohio, resident became the first person to die in a self-driving car.” Although the car was not a fully self driving car, it was marketed with a technology called autopilot that operated acceleration, braking and steering, which essentially involves no physical input from the driver to operate the vehicle but it does require attention from the driver. “Tesla’s Autopilot is a technological marvel. It controls the car, using radar and cameras to scan the road. It keeps the car within lanes on highways. It brakes, accelerates and passes other vehicles automatically. According to one of Tesla’s public statements, the camera on Brown’s car failed to recognize the tractor-trailer crossing the highway against a bright sky. As a result, the car did not brake, nor did it issue any warning to Brown. The car crashed into the trailer, killing Brown.” This article is source from a credible because it is from a well recognized journal that is know for their detailed reports on current events. This is a helpful source because it highlights the flaws with current “self” driving cars and how they are not completely safe, even though this example was not a true self driving car its was close enough, that its effects rippled through the automotive industry.
Patel, Neel V. “A Dangerous Self-Driving Car Is Still Better Than a Human Driver” Slate, Nov 8, 2017, Slate Internet Source, http://slate.com. The article poses, if the self driving cars are dangerous, it is still 10 percent less likely to crash, which could save upwards of 3,000 lives annually. So we should rush to adopt the technology, because even if the tech is new it can still be implemented to save a life. “The report’s authors developed three basic models for the future safety of autonomous vehicles: one in which those cars are 10 percent safer than human drivers, one in which they are 75 percent safer, and another where they are 90 percent safer. Each of those models were run through different scenarios to evaluate how that technology could be advanced and to what degree our current level of motor-vehicle accidents might be decreased.”
The source is credible because it comes from a well know web source that it know for its technology coverage. The source is relevant because it showed how safer the roads can be due to self driving cars since they are more safe. The article is helpful because it showed how much we need self driving cars in our future and without them the roads will continue to be dangerous.
Saripalli, Srikanth “Redefining “saftey” for Self Driving Cars” Scientific American, November 29, 2017, The Conversation, Internet web source, http://scientificamerican.com. The article poses gives detailed information on crashes with self driving cars and how they happen. The article then goes on to discuss what kinds of crashes their are. Most self driving car crashes reported in the news are not due to the self driving car crashing into another car it is the latter a normal car crashes into the self driving car. Most of these “crashes” are not the self driving cars fault. However there are times when sensors on the vehicles malfunction and will cause a crash. “There are two main causes for crashes involving autonomous vehicles. The first source of problems is when the sensors don’t detect what’s happening around the vehicle. Each sensor has its quirks: GPS works only with a clear view of the sky; cameras work with enough light; lidar can’t work in fog; and radar is not particularly accurate. There may not be another sensor with different capabilities to take over. It’s not clear what the ideal set of sensors is for an autonomous vehicle—and, with both cost and computing power as limiting factors, the solution can’t be just adding more and more.” The article is reliable because it is based off of a scientific website that has no bias towards the development of self driving cars. This article is relevant because it does not hide the fact that the cars have the potential to malfunction and can cause a crash. This article is useful because it gives out a more detailed sense of how the systems works in these self driving cars.Teaming, Maria “When it comes to self driving cars, what’s safe enough?” Science & the Public, November 21, 2017. Science News Internet source, sciencenews.org This source goes over the recent self driving min vans that went live in Arizona, without human back up drivers. “Self-driving vehicles passed a major milestone in November when Waymo’s minivans hit the streets of Phoenix without backup human drivers — reportedly making them the first fleet of fully autonomous cars on public roadways.” They go on to discuss how modern American feel about them and if they would ride in one most of them say they are scared to ride in them. “A whopping 85 percent of baby boomers and even 73 percent of millennials confess to being afraid to ride in self-driving cars, according to a recent AAA survey.” This source is reliable because it was posted by a scientific organization that offers survey data that is crucial to the development of self driving cars. The source is relevant because it discuses the recent enrollment of an fully autonomous vehicle fleet currently on public roads. The source is helpful because it prepares people for a fully autonomous future and lets them know that, that future is here. 

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