VERTICAL MOBILITY is the movement from one social status to another. Similarly, it is a change in social status. Anything that affects social status can direct the vertical mobility.

EXAMPLE OF VERTICAL MOBILITY

Ali is my friend who is a construction worker who was just laid off from his job of 9 years. Ali has a few Rupees in his pocket, so he chooses to play the lottery. One day he wins the lottery. Ali uses his lottery winnings to start his own construction company, which eventually evolves into a multi-billion Rupees company. Ali has moved from unemployed construction worker to billionaire business owner.

 

HORIZONTAL MOBILITY refer to changing from one position to another without a change in social status. We can say that, it’s when we change our positions within our same level of social status, and we do not move up or down the social order.

EXAMPLE OF HORIZONTAL MOBILITY

Shahid is a civilian employee in BPS-12 in Pakistan Air force. After two years of working at PAF, He decides that he no longer continue his job in this scale due to no vacancy in his department. Shahid apply interviews for jobs for BPS-17 in different department of PAF. At last he got BPS-17 in his same department. Shahid switching jobs is an example of horizontal mobility.

INTRAGENERATIONAL MOBILITY refers to change in someone is social mobility during the course of his or her life time.

EXAMPLE OF INTRAGENERATIONAL MOBILITY

Shahid is a young man born into a middle-class family in a nice housing community. When Shahid is five, his father loses his job and has to sell the family home. He and his family move in with his grandparents, and he starts playing the guitar. He continues to practice and joins a rock band in his teen years. Shortly after his 23rd birthday, He gets a record deal and he becomes an national rock star. He plays and travels with his band until he is 50. He then retires to teach guitar courses at a performing arts university.

Q2

Research on social mobility typically recognizes the relevance of gender. However, gender-based differences still lack explanation extensive and description. This article starts by reviewing a number of influential contributions on social mobility, educational systems and employment change, as well as important critiques raised in feminist scholarship with regard to these topics of enquiry. We argue that class analysis should not only document asymmetry between men and women in greater detail, but also incorporate it as a piece of explanatory value in the understanding of social mobility at large. This is attempted by examining the data of the European Social Survey covering 22 countries. Drawing on this large-scale data set, we will demonstrate that the transformation of employment structures favours particular forms of upward mobility, which coexist with the resilience of gender inequality in accessing affluent classes.

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