Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) is one of the methods, which has been receiving increased attention in civil industry as a sustainable alternative to natural aggregates not only with a low carbon footprint but also to decrease the solid demolition waste. Basically, by reducing the amount of mortar in the new RCA concrete, cement consumption will decrease. After World War II, the use of demolished concrete as aggregate for new concrete started in Europe (Wainwright et al., 1994). However, as soon as the demand for aggregate could be met by available natural aggregate, recycling was basically abandoned (Buck, 1976). Some countries have had some kind of standards and guideline for RCA, albeit not for RAC.  Since 1982, the ASTM “Standard specification for concrete aggregates”, C33-82 (ASTM C33-82) defines coarse aggregate such that it includes crushed hydraulic cement concrete, and ASTM 125-79a (ASTM 125-79a) “Standard definitions of terms relating to concrete and concrete aggregates” defines manufactured sand to include hydraulic-cement concrete, and there are no longer technical barriers to the use of recycled concrete as aggregates in the United States.

In Japan, the Building Contractors’ Society of Japan (BCSJ)  issued  a  “Proposed  standard  for  the  use  of  recycled  aggregate  and  recycled aggregate concrete” in 1977 (Hansen, 1986). However, the recycling law was established in  1991  to  control  the  increase  of  waste  and  to  promote  recycling  of  useful  resources (Noguchi  and  Tamura,  2001).  In the Netherlands, a proposal for a Dutch standard for recycled concrete as aggregate for production of new concrete was developed by CUR (Commissie voor Uitvoering van Research ingesteli de Betonvereniging). This standard allows  using  up  to  20%  by  weight  of  the  total  coarse  or  fine  aggregates  to  be  RCA (Hansen, 1986). In the United Kingdom, the New British Standard Guide 6543, “Use of industrial by-products and waste materials in buildings and civil engineering”, covers the use  of  demolition  waste  and  other  waste  materials  in  both  road  construction  and buildings.

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  In  Russia,  since  1984  NlIZBH  of  the  former  USSR  Research  Institute  for Concrete and Reinforced Concrete has allowed the use of coarse RCA in production of up  to  20MPa  concrete,  including  reinforced  concrete,  but  not  in  pre-stressed  concrete (Hansen,  1986).  Denmark  issued  a  modification  to  the  regular  concrete  code  in  1990, which  allows  the  use  of  RAC  for  certain  structural  purposes  under  mild  exposure conditions (Hansen, 1992).


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