Until the 1960s, the role of most information systems was simple and straight forward. They were mainly used for electronic data processing (EDP),purposes such as transactions processing, record-keeping and accounting. Its application has been developed gradually and have been adopted according to the market requirement. There was requirement and a demand for a field of study to build a bridge the gap between computer programmers and business world. The definition of information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization. In terms of business Information systems provides solution to a problem as it consist of a combination of management, organization and a technology.
It is all taken up with “punch card”, electronic calculator and today, it has evolved to e-business, e-commercialism and the latest innovation, mobile computing as well as cloud computing. The different types of Information system Include Transaction processing systems, Office Automation system, Management Information System, Decision support system, Executive Information system. Most of the organization follow hierarchy, the different types or classes will also tends to follow the similar trend.
The most usual type of Information security followed in many organizations is four staged model. Workes- Transaction processing system, Middle Managers- Management Information systems, Senior Managers- Decision support systems, Executives- Executive Information system. Transaction Processing System- In 1950s the Information system was quite simple as they were mainly used for electronic data processing. It performs tasks like transaction processing, record keeping and accounting.
It is a type of information which collects, stores, modifies and retrieves the data transaction of an organization. The outputs could be cash deposits, order, payments etc. The early TPS utilized group handling information which is collected over some stretch of time and all exchanges are prepared a short time later. Today, as PC turned out to be all the more intense, frameworks designers have fabricated an online exchange preparing framework (OLTP). In 1960-1970 (first period) Another part was added to the utilization of PCs, which is the handling of information into helpful instructive reports. Administration data frameworks or MIS in this way advanced from TPS.Management Information Systems (MIS) – gives data as prespecified reports and shows to help business basic leadership. Cases of yield from MIS are deals investigation, creation execution and cost drift announcing frameworks.
The significant progression was the presentation of the PCs (PC). With the presentation of PCs, associations started to appropriate their registering/preparing power over the association. As the scope of clients widened, associations took a more grounded administration introduction to their customarily technical oriented way to deal with IS operations. The development began concentrating on “intelligent computer based framework” to help leaders in settling issues. Because of that, the pre-characterized administration reports were not adequate to meet numerous of the basic leadership needs of administration any longer. With a specific end goal to fulfill such needs, the idea of choice emotionally supportive networks (DSS) was conceived. The new part of data frameworks was to give administrative end clients with impromptu and intuitive help of their basic leadership process.
Decision support systems (DSS) – – provide interactive ad-hoc support for the decision making process of managers and other business professionals. DSS serves the management, operations, and planning levels of an organization usually mid and higher management to make a decision. The Third period (1980 to 1990) – EIS and the Internet–This was the time of individualized computing, offering ascend to departmental processing. This pattern prompted new difficulties of information inconsistency, availability and uprightness crosswise over utilitarian offices.
End clients could now utilize their own particular processing assets to help their activity prerequisites rather than sitting tight for the roundabout help of a brought together corporate data administrations office. It ended up plainly obvious that most best administrators did not utilize either MIS reports or the diagnostic displaying abilities of DSS, so the idea of official data frameworks (EIS) was created. It is otherwise called an official emotionally supportive network (ESS).Executive information systems (EIS) — is a type of management information system intended to facilitate and support the information and decision-making needs of senior executives by providing easy access to both internal and external information relevant to meeting the strategic goals of the organization. The Fourth period (1990 to 2000) – Artificial Intelligence (AI), Expert systems (ES) and Knowledge management systems (KMS) — This time denotes a noteworthy move of IS innovation and the business condition. The commercialization of the Internet empowered new techniques for correspondence and methods for directing business that were unrealistic in the past times. The web permits the scattering of learning to various parts of the world, paying little heed to time and space. Also, leaps forward happened in the advancement and utilization of manufactured knowledge (AI) procedures to business data frameworks.
With less requirement for human intercession, learning laborers could be arranged for to deal with more mind boggling errands. Master frameworks (ES) and learning administration frameworks (KMS) interrelated to each other. ES utilizes information from KM to create alluring data framework’s yield, for example credit application endorsement framework.The fifth period (2000 – present) – e-Business, e-Commerce, Mobile and Cloud Computing — lastly, huge information, portable and distributed computing in the most recent time of advanced mobile phones, tablets what’s more, online networking, and the quick development of remote system innovation. Enormous information is a gathering of information from conventional and advanced sources inside and outside of an association that speaks to a hot spot for progressing disclosure and examination.
Distributed computing empowers helpful, on-request arrange access to a mutual pool of configurable registering gadgets, for example, systems, servers, capacity, applications and administrations that can be quickly provisioned and discharged with insignificant administration exertion or specialist co-op communications.