Unit 4:
Child Health

2 – Understanding the legal requirements for reporting notifiable diseases,
injury and fatality.

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3.1 (D4) Identify accurately a range
of diseases which must be notified to authorities in line with requirements.

The legal
requirement for reporting notifiable diseases, injury and fatality is called
RIDDOR. This legislation is used in settings is to protect the children and
staff from dangerous occurrences such as dangerous diseases, life threating
injuries and even death. When there has been a dangerous occurrence or a
notifiable disease in the nursery, practitioners have to report it to RIDDOR so
that they can prevent the occurrence from happening again in another setting.
It is a legal responsibility and it is the nursery’s responsibility to report

When a child
does have a notifiable disease (e.g. measles), they must be excluded whilst
they are contagious. It is best for parents to seek local advice from their
doctor on when it best for the child to come back into the setting and to
follow the setting’s exclusion polices.


There are
many notifiable diseases that need to be reported to RIDDOR. A notifiable
disease is a disease that the local health authority (LAPO) has said and have
chosen to be reported to RIDDOR as they are contagious and could cause serious
harm if caught. Examples of Notifiable diseases are…

1.      Mumps – This is a disease that causes
swelling (Especially in the face). This disease is usually prevented with the
MMR vaccine.

2.      Whooping Cough – This is where the child has bouts
of coughing which has a whooping sound.

3.      Measles- 
This disease is highly contagious, and it is where the child develops
greyish spots on the body.

4.      Acute Meningitis –  This can cause serious complications where the child’s body
has a red rash that does not go away.

5.      Rubella – Where the child has a pink rash with
swollen glands near the ears and neck.

6.      Scarlet fever – The tongue of the child can get red
and swollen and their body will develop a red rash.

7.      Food Poisoning – 
This illness is where the child has diarrhoea and sickness as they have
eaten food that has been contaminated with bacteria such as E-Coili.

8.      Diphtheria – This is where the child will get a
thick coating that’s white/grey on the back of their throat, this illness can
cause death in babies.

9.      Yellow Fever – This disease is not found in the UK
but from countries such as south America. It is where the child has been bitten
by a mosquito and can make the child feel very unwell.

10.  Tuberculosis –  This is very contagious and can cause serious
complications to the nervous system.


Case study

Zach is 3
years old and goes to a day nursery. Today his mother was late to work and
rushed Zach into the nursery. Zach had recently just transitioned into the 3-5-year-old
room; when Zach had told his mother that he felt a bit unwell, she thought that
Zach was just a bit anxious about the transition. The practitioners were told
to keep an eye on him to see if he is okay throughout the day.

Two hours
later, one of the staff started to notice that Zach’s face was starting to
swell whist he was eating his snack. 
When the practitioner asked if he was okay, Zach replayed and said that
his cheeks hurt when he eats. After he said that the practitioners asked Zach
to come aside so that they could check he had any other symptoms. They
discovered that Zach also had a high temperature, his cheeks were red and that
he was having aches and pains all over his body. The practitioners agreed that
he might have a high chance that he has got mumps.

Zach was
isolated from the rest of class whilst one of the practitioners called his
parents to arrange to pick him up. When his father had got there, the
practitioner discussed that the policy at the day nursery was that children
with mumps are to have five days exclusion period once the symptoms begin. The
practitioner also gave advice that Zach should have lots of sleep and fluids
and that he might need Calpol to soothe his aches and pains and lower his
temperature.  She also asked if the child
has received their MMR vaccine when he was 12-13 months and that he should have
another before he starts school.  Zach
was also told by the practitioner to wash his hands often and to sneeze into a
tissue to prevent the germs from spreading.  Lastly, she told him if any of the symptoms
get worse, he should call a doctor immediately.

After Zach
had gone, the practitioner reported the case of Mumps in the nursery to RIDDOR
so that she could let the local authorities know about the infectious disease.
Posters were put up on walls to inform parents that someone had been found with
Mumps and that they should check their child if they have any symptoms. The
toys in the 3-5-year-old room was thoroughly washed to prevent the mumps from

study – Chicken Pox


Millie is 2 years old and goes to
nursery. Millie lives with her parents and her
sister who has recently had the chicken pox. This morning MillyMillie
had a temper tantrum as she did not want to eat her breakfast. MillyMillie’s
parents usually struggle to get her to eat breakfast but today she was worse. MillyMillie’s
mother explained this to her key worker at the nursery. The key worker
encouraged her to eat breakfast with the other children in the setting: MillyMillie
agreed. As the key worker picked up MillyMillie
she noticed that she was quite warm. The practitioner felt MillyMillie’s
head and found out she had a high temperature. As her mother was still there,
the key worker told MillyMillie’s
mother about this. Her mother explain there has been case of chicken pox in her


 The practitioners suggested that they should
take her into the nappy changing area and check her body for any blisters/rashes.
Millie’s mother and the practitioners found out that MillyMillie
was starting to get blisters on her chest/stomach area.  MillyMillie
started to cry as she feared the spots on her body. The practitioners said that
should have plenty of water and sleep. They also
suggested to make sure that Millie’s
nails are cut short or that she should have gloves of her hands to prevent
scratching. They also advised her to get creams to help with
the itching and that paracetamol is
best to help if she is in pain. The keyworker explained
that the policy for chicken pox is that
Milly must not return to nursery
five day after the first spots appear.


After Milly was
took home, the nursery put up posters
informing parents about the case of chicken
pox and that
they should look out the signs in their child. Things
that Milly had touched were cleaned to prevent the illness from spreading.


3.2 – Give a description of the processes for reporting
notifiable diseases, injury and fatality:

In line with the setting’s policies
and procedures.

To meet legal requirements and


When there has been a child with a
notifiable disease, all settings must have policies and procedures that they
need to follow. Settings must make sure that confidentiality is kept always
whilst making reports of the case.

Firstly, the settings have to write
down the notifiable disease and any important details such as the date and time
the notifiable disease occurred. Secondly, after the have got in touch with
local health authority they have to ensure that they follow all advice. All the
staff in the nursery must also be informed of the notifiable disease and to
look out for any symptoms in other children.

Injury or fatality, the setting must
also have policies and procedures.  For
example, all nurseries must have a accident report book. This is a book where
the settings have to note down and record important information about the
dangerous event that has occurred. (e.g. 
what happen, who had got injured, time and place and if there where any
witnesses during the event etc.) This document must be kept safe as it will
contain sensitive information. However, the document must also be accessible so
that all staff know where it is if there was a accident/emergency.

Forms must be filled in when there
has been an incident, for example the accident form is where practitioners
record any injuries a child has got during the time in the setting. For
example, if the child has fallen over and bumped his head. When this happens,
the nursery will have it stored in the child’s file and parents will also be
given a copy. It usually states important information such as the kind of
injury, time and date, any witnesses of the injury and where it may have

Another important form is for
medication where the parents of the child give their permission for the nursery
staff to administer medication to their child. 
This form is usually signed by the parent and kept in the child personal

Another form could be needed if the parent
gives the child a medication before they enter the setting. This policy is in
case the child might have allergic reaction to the medicine they are given.  However, for some incidents Ofsted need to be
contacted immediately if a child has died from a incident that has occurred in
the setting, or if a child has had to have had treatment from a injury that has
happened in the setting. Ofsted must also be contacted if more than one child
has had food poisoning in the setting. It is important that Ofsted know of
these events as they help make sure that no other children are at risk of these
events to ensure the children are safeguarded. 


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