Treating Acquired immune deficiency syndromeusing the applications of NanotechnologyABSTRACTZidovudine is the latest known drug that isused for treatment of HIV/Aids.
This drug hasan affinity to the HIV genome (RNA molecule)and they to sense the AIDS infected WBCs andconvert them back into original WBCs byinjecting Zidovudine into the infected cell withhelp of Nanobots. It operates at specific sitesand has no side effects. Thus the AIDS patientis provided binds to it before reversetranscriptase starts working and as a resultDNA cannot be synthesized.BACKGROUNDThe function of the nanobots is to identify aparticular compound. In this case the biosensorwill contain a particular antibody.
The gp41 andgp120 are two unique HIV envelope proteinwhich is found in the cell membrane of theinfected cell. The antigen (gp41 and gp120protein) and antibody reaction will give theproper signal. In case of infected cell only thisreaction will take place as those viral proteins arefound in the cell membrane of the infected cellonly. Getting the +ve signal the nanorobot willinject its nanotube into the nucleus of the infectedcell and release the DNase as well as RNaseenzyme into the cell. The DNase enzyme is notsequence specific and as a result it will cleave thewhole genomic DNA containing the viral genomeinto single nucleotides. Once the viral genomeloses its sequence it loses its viral effect and afterthe digestion of the whole genomic DNA the cellundergoes normal programmed cell death calledapoptosis. Thus the infected cell of the diseasedbody can be destroyed to finish off the viralgenome in the body as shown in (Fig.2).
CURRENT RESULTSThe DNA sensor is an cantilever type(Fig.3). Inone arm the actual sample is placed and in thesecond arm the sample from the WBC is placed.Even if the samples differ by a single base, it canbe identified.
Carbon nanotube network field-effecttransistors (NTNFETs) that function asselective detectors of immobilization andhybridization. NTNFETs withimmobilized synthetic oligonucleotideshave been shown to specifically recognizetarget DNA sequences, including H63Dsingle-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)discrimination in the HFE gene,responsible forhereditar hemochromatosis.The electronic responses of NTNFETsupon single-stranded immobilization andsubsequent DNA hybridization eventswere confirmed by using fluorescencelabeledoligonucleotides and then werefurther explored for label-free DNAdetection at picomolar to micromolarconcentrations. The nanorobot uses theglucose molecules present in the humanbody as the power source. The conversionof this glucose molecule into the energy isaccomplished by the energy converter,which is animportant part of theNanorobots.