leader is an “icon” to organization especially in an organization where this
leader did what was thought to be impossible” Bass & Avolio, 1994.

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The most contemporary
leadership theory, which fascinates various debates and studies at different
points to attest its effectiveness in current world leadership’s pattern is
transformational leadership theory. As alluded by Taly el al., 2002, Transformational
leadership is all about empowering followers to develop themselves and
improving their performance beyond expectation. It has also been claimed by
(William, L. K., et al. 1995. p. 331) that “transformational leaders have
charismatic leadership behavior whereby they attempt to inspire their followers
in return to faith and respect. They also have a clear sense of mission that
they attempt to convey to their followers. It is further evidence that such
leaders also tend to have superior debating skills, technical expertise and
persuasive skills.” As stated by (Doyle & Smith 2009) While Gandhi is
highly inspirational transformational leader, Hitler is best example of
Charismatic leader. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and present with
some examples that transformational leadership has place an over emphasis on
charisma and personality.



Transformational leadership:

Transformational leadership is
leadership panache which is centered on four behaviors commonly known as the
4Is. They are Idealized Influence, Inspiration Motivation, Intellectual
Simulation, Individualized consideration (Bass
& Riggio. 2006). Typically the first two behaviors are charismatic
behaviors (Mandell & Pherwani, 2003) whereby a leader instigate his/her
followers to the degree that they reach a high level of faith that without him
or her an organization can’t move
any step forward. Bass, 1995 frazzled that,


charisma is a necessary
component of the transformational leadership; he mentioned further, that a
leader can be charismatic without being transformational. In their study of
charismatic leadership (Conger, et al. 1988.p.6), “they concluded that, the
development of charismatic leadership is assumed to be a transformational
leadership process and transformational leaders are assumed to be charismatic
as well as intellectual stimulating, inspirational and so forth… pure
charismatic has attracted followers’ attention, convinced them of the merits of
his or her vision, and established a strong following”. At the top level of
charismatic leadership, a leader is seen as demonstrating or addressing the
individual needs of followers (treating followers on a one-to-one basis) and
they inspire followers to look at old problems in new ways through rational
stimulation. It has been pondered that transformational leader will elevate
his/her followers to a higher level of accomplishment by his/her inspiration
motivation; moreover followers will strive to organization needs in expense of
their own needs. (Burns, 1978 as cited by Tucker & Russell, 2004)


 Charismatic and Transformational Leader

It is important to
understand the different leadership frameworks and styles. No one style of
leadership fits all situations. There is also continued debate in the
distinction between the two approaches. The collective ground for both
charismatic and transformational leadership theories is the ability of both
approach to influence followers and effect change in the organization or group.
The influence processes used by both are different. Once this is clearly
understood, the leader can adapt his or her approach to fit the existing
situation. The two leadership approaches exhibit interactions between the
leader and follower; all the conditions are not required to be met, and it
takes time for such relationships to develop.

       There are many behaviors that appear
applicable for both types of leadership. There is significant obscurity about
the crucial behaviors for charismatic and transformational leadership. But
there are some obvious variances in the configuration of behavior connected
with each kind of leadership. In a pursuit to achieve important objectives, a
transformational leader is more likely to take actions that will empower
followers and make them associates. A charismatic leader seems more likely to accentuate
the need for drastic change that can only be accomplished if followers put
their belief in the leader’s exceptional expertise. There is a wild possibility
to portray similar behaviour at the same time as discordant aspects of the core
behaviors for transformational and charismatic leadership may make it erratic
for both types of leadership to take place at once.

and charismatic leadership theories scope is parallel and attuned. Some theorists
curtail the differences between transformational and charismatic leadership
(e.g., House & Shamir, 1993). Leadership researchers interpret transformational
and charismatic leadership as individual but moderately overlapping courses.
Bass (1985) projected that charisma is a basic element of transformational
leadership, but he noted that a leader can be charismatic without being
transformational and vice versa.




of Transformational leader:

Not everyone can be a transformational leader.  Most
people believe strongly in their convictions and values or are even afraid to
change. People who inspire change and motivate even those who seem to be
unchangeable are transformational leaders.

Values are important for people and they often consider their
values and ethics as an integral part of who they are. Transformational
leadership has to do with these values and ethics as well as emotions and
standards in passionate and powerful ways.

When I ponder of transformational leaders I think of Gandhi. Gandhi was an
incredible man and role model to many people. At the time Gandhi was alive,
India was in a civil disaster. Great Britain had rule over India and treated
the Indian people like slaves. To bring attention to India and it’s problems he
used non-violent methods. He believed himself to be a rebel for a just cause. Crisis
is a situational characteristic of transformational leadership. If there is no
crisis, there isn’t any need for change or transformation. Gandhi was the one
who was the leader of that change that India needed.  Gandhi brought an entire country (India) out
from under the rule of another (Great Britain). Gandhi as transformational
leader helped them achieve this freedom as definitely, the citizens of India at
the time did not expect to ever be able to have freedom from the British. He certainly
has personalized leadership skills as he could talk to a crowd of people and
each member felt as if he was speaking directly to them. He bonded with them on
one to one basis and was compassionate even to his enemies. Readiness to be a
martyr is a sort of selflessness used by transformational leaders to build
trust with their followers and Gandhi was more than willing to up for the cause
of equality and freedom.


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