( MIDDLE EAST )SHAMIM SALEH (( [email protected] )) Abstract Where is the Middle East?There is no single definition of the geographic scope and geographical boundaries of the Middle East that has been around since about a century ago, but on the other hand, historians, journalists and media outlets, on the Persian Gulf and its surrounding countries as the center of the Middle East Consensus. Therefore, the definitions that have been expressed in the Middle East are very different in scopeWebster’s new geographic culture has defined the Middle East as follows:”The vast area that includes the countries of South Asia and North Africa, which in the past included Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Burma.
” Britannica’s new encyclopedia describes the Middle East in more detail: “The Middle East is a land plotted around the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from Morocco to the Arabian Peninsula and Iran, and even beyond. The central part of this general area was previously called the Near East. The name given to this region by some of the new geographers and historians of the West who tended to extend the East to the three “Near East” regions to the closest region to Europe, from the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf, the Middle East, from the Persian Gulf to the Southeast Asia stretches and divide the “Far East” into Pacific coastal regions .Ahmed Nahibzadeh, a professor at Tehran University, has chosen the definition for the Middle East:”In the Middle East, almost all the eastern Mediterranean countries, like Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates and Oman) plus Iran, Afghanistan and even Pakistan, and on the African continent, Sudanese countries And part of Libya. Some also consider some of the Arab countries, including Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco, because of the strong historical and cultural attachment of the Middle East. African countries Mauritania and Somalia also have links with the Middle East. Turkey and Cyprus, geographically inside or near this area, consider themselves part of Europe.
Iran is the eastern border of the Middle East, but sometimes Afghanistan is also considered as part of this division.Professor George Owen, a Middle East historian and Middle East scholar at Harvard University, said the Middle East term was originally a geostrategic concept that was used for the first time in an area between the Persian Gulf and Pakistan. This term (Middle East) during the Second World War involved a vast region of Egypt to Iran, and from Syria and Iraq to Sudan, which was controlled by the Center for the Protection of Middle East interests in Cairo. In the last half century, the Middle East concept has become new dimensions and has grown dramatically due to the prosperity of the Middle Eastern countries’ interrelationships, which have grown over the Islamic-Arab Commonwealth.
Gradually, the scope of the Middle East concept expanded to non-Arab countries such as Iran, Turkey and Israel. Because these countries had close ties with the Arab countries for a variety of geographic, military and economic reasons (petroleum issues). The governments of the Maghreb (including Algeria, Tunisia, etc.
) were not initially located in the Middle East, but in the 1980s, by drawing up a new map of the region’s economy by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, the Middle East used a wider range of publics. The world has found a new attitude towards this locomotive .According to the above definitions, the term Middle East does not mean that it is rooted in natural geography, so that the natural boundaries separate this region from its neighbors in Asia and Africa, but the Middle East is a historical, human, geographical, cultural, political, and economic concept. Or George Owen’s concept is geostrategic. Some theorists have used the concepts of the Arab world, the Muslim world and the Mediterranean for the region, but what is certain is that the Middle East term since the beginning of the second half of the last century has been the most useful and lasting framework for scientific and public discourse for West is in the region.
The sensitive and strategic region of the Middle East, once the origin of the early civilizations of humanity and the place of the emergence of great religions, has today maintained its importance as the centerpiece of international politics, although it still has different perspectives on the borders and boundaries of the Middle East. However, elements such as the traditional Islamic civilization, energy and oil resources, geopolitical significance and, ultimately, universal suffering and long-term international disputes through long-standing conflicts in the region can be understood as the components defined by the Middle East.4 INTRODUCTIONMany of the definitions of the “Middle East” – both in reference books and in slang terms – refer to it as a region in Southwest Asia, which includes countries between Iran and Egypt. While most of Egypt (except Sinai) is located in North Africa, it is considered to be part of the Middle East. North African countries such as Libya, Tunisia and Morocco, as opposed to the Middle East, are called in the public media in North Africa.4 So, the Middle East has such a broad and diverse concept that we must now say what the Middle East is before the start of each speech.The question posed by this paper is why the purpose of the Middle East term is ambiguous and has undergone many changes over the years in the field and, in the end, instead of meeting the interests of the countries in the Middle East, most of the benefits The West has provided.
The hypothesis of the present study is that the definition of the Middle East in different sections is based on the interests of the West and contradicts the interests of the Islamic countries of the Middle East.In this article, while defining the definitions of the West from the Middle East, we will present a new definition of the Middle East based on the views and interests of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Islamic countries.4A: The Middle East Importance:In the discussion entry, we need to clarify why the Middle East has become important for the foreign powers from time immemorial, and what advantages make this region important and distinct. 1- Historical-cultural significanceThe Middle East, from a cultural-historical point of view, is the birthplace of the great religions of monotheism and divinity. The Prophets of Almighty God have declared their universal mission in this area. Of about twenty known civilizations, more than half have been identified in the Middle East.
Many other famous civilizations have also been recognized in the Middle East, such as the Chinese and Indian civilizations. Religiously, the city of Jerusalem is very sacred and valuable to followers of the divine religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In addition, the Middle East is the cradle of legislation and the knowledge of philosophy and literature, and so on. The art of the old world is rooted in this region and has spread from all over the world. The Middle East lies at the juncture of Eurasia and Africa and of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. It is the birthplace and spiritual center of religions such as Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Manichaeism, Yezidi, Druze, Yarsan and Mandeanism, and in Iran, Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism, and the Bahá’í Faith. Throughout its history the Middle East has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area.The world’s earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) and ancient Egypt, originated in the Fertile Crescent and Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East.
These were followed by the Hittite, Greek and Urartian civilisations of Asia Minor, Elam in pre-Iranian Persia, as well as the civilizations of the Levant (such as Ebla, Ugarit, Canaan, Aramea, Phoenicia and Israel), Persian and Median civilizations in Iran, North Africa (Carthage/Phoenicia) and the Arabian Peninsula (Magan, Sheba, Ubar). The Near East was first largely unified under the Neo Assyrian Empire, then the AchaemenidEmpire followed later by the Macedonian Empire and after this to some degree by the Iranian empires (namely the Parthian and Sassanid Empires), the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire. However, it would be the later Arab Caliphates of the Middle Ages, or Islamic Golden Age which began with the Arab conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant Islamic ethnic identity that largely (but not exclusively) persists today. The Mongols, the Kingdom of Armenia, the Seljuks, the Safavids, the Ottoman Empire, and the British Empire also dominated the region. The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably Britain and France by the end of the 1960s.
They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States from the 1970s onwards.In the 20th century, the region’s significant stocks of crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance. Mass production of oil began around 1945, with Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates having large quantities of oil.28 Estimated oil reserves, especially in Saudi Arabia and Iran, are some of the highest in the world, and the international oil cartel OPEC is dominated by Middle Eastern countries.During the Cold War, the Middle East was a theater of ideological struggle between the two superpowers and their allies: NATO and the United States on one side, and the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact on the other, as they competed to influence regional allies.
Besides the political reasons there was also the “ideological conflict” between the two systems. Moreover, as Louise Fawcett argues, among many important areas of contention, or perhaps more accurately of anxiety, were, first, the desires of the superpowers to gain strategic advantage in the region, second, the fact that the region contained some two thirds of the world’s oil reserves in a context where oil was becoming increasingly vital to the economy of the Western world …
29 Within this contextual framework, the United States sought to divert the Arab world from Soviet influence. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict particularly between Sunnis and Shiites.4The five top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Kurdish, and Hebrew. Arabic and Hebrew represent the Afro-Asiatic language family.
Persian and Kurdish belong to the Indo-European language family. Turkish belongs to Turkic language family. About 20 minority languages are also spoken in the Middle East.
Arabic, with all its dialects, are the most widely spoken languages in the Middle East, with Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. Arabic dialects are also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouringMiddle Eastern non-Arab countries. It is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Several Modern South Arabian languages such as Mehri and Soqotri are also spoken Yemen and Oman.
Another Semitic language such as Aramaic and its dialects are spoken mainly by Assyrians and Mandaeans. There is also a Oasis Berber-speaking community in Egypt where the language is also known as Siwa. It is a non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic language.Persian is the second most spoken language. While it is primarily spoken in Iran and some border areas in neighbouringcountries, the country is one of the region’s largest and most populous.
It belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the family of Indo-European languages. Other Western Iranic languages spoken in the region include Achomi, Daylami, Kurdishdialects, Semmani, Lurish, amongst many others.The third-most widely spoken language, Turkish, is largely confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region’s largest and most populous countries, but it is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member of the Turkic languages, which have their origins in Central Asia. Another Turkic language, Azerbaijani, is spoken by Azerbaijanis in Iran.Hebrew is one of the two official languages of Israel, the other being Arabic.
Hebrew is spoken and used by over 80% of Israel’s population, the other 20% using Arabic.English is commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes, in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Iran, Kurdistan, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait.3233 It is also a main language in some Emirates of the United Arab Emirates.
French is taught and used in many government facilities and media in Lebanon, and is taught in some primary and secondary schools of Egypt and Syria. Maltese, a Semitic language mainly spoken in Europe, is also used by the Franco-Maltese diasporain Egypt.Armenian and Greek speakers are also to be found in the region.
Georgian is spoken by the Georgian diaspora. Russian is spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, because of emigration in the late 1990s. Russian today is a popular unofficial language in use in Israel; news, radio and sign boards can be found in Russian around the country after Hebrew and Arabic. Circassian is also spoken by the diaspora in the region and by almost all Circassians in Israel who speak Hebrew and English as well. The largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East is found in Israel, where as of 1995 Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population.note 33435Bengali, Hindi and Urdu is widely spoken by migrant communities in many Middle Eastern countries, such as Saudi Arabia (where 20–25% of the population is South Asian), the United Arab Emirates (where 50–55% of the population is South Asian), and Qatar, which have large numbers of Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Indian immigrants.12- The Political-Security ImportanceIn the Middle East, with regard to social fabric, ethnic and racial diversity, resources and material facilities are of particular importance. Because the distribution of natural resources and facilities was not based on the will and satisfaction of the people of the region.
After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, the creation of boundaries for newly emerging countries was based on the interests and pride of the colonial powers of Europe that were present in the Middle East without regard to the ethnic, racial and religious issues of the people. Therefore, today, in the Middle East and even North Africa, one can notfind a country that is not in a way with one of its neighbors, for the sake of water, oil, land, and so on. The same problem from time to time raises the arms race and in some cases causes conflict and short-term and long-term conflict in the Middle East. Therefore, the Middle East is of political importance for the people of the region as well as for other countries.Zbigniew Brzezinski, a leading US foreign policy theorist and National Security Advisor Carter, says that the region is like a “wormhole” that has been dragged out and ready to throw a deadly shoot to the globe.
From the Horn of Africa to Afghanistan and from Iran to the Middle East this arc. This “drainage” is the center of the superpower’s heavy competition, and its perimentional center may ignite at any moment, and excite the world. 4 3. Economic importanceThe Middle East as the world’s focal point of energy throughout the twentieth century, and doubly at the beginning of the new century, has been the point of rising and the emergence of many developments and crises that their effects have often surpassed the regional levels. The Middle East region, especially since the end of the Second World War, has been increasingly attracted by great powers due to the importance of the global economy, and forced them to use various tools to influence and influence the developments in the area. .
In the twentieth century, this region was, on the one hand, a major part of the world’s energy supply, and on the other hand, it was the focus of some crises and tensions, mainly due to the presence of Israel and the dictates of some great powers, especially the United States. For this reason, developments in the Middle East region are tied to global security and international political economy.That is why the Middle East has long been the focus of great powers, which has led these powers to make different definitions of the Middle East for the sake of their broad interests and needs. Similarly, there is no disagreement over the precise use of the term Middle East or the Near East.
The extent of the geographical area and the countries that fall within this range is also unlikely to occur, for some countries, such as the Gulf States and the Hellenic Empire, plus Yemen And Turkey are in the Middle East, but North Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Cyprus are dispersed, but in the Middle East.So the meaning of the Middle East has always been variable. Some have used it in the vast geographic description of the Indian subcontinent to North Africa, and they use the Middle East to describe the Arab-Israeli conflict, and they describe the other Gulf and Arabian peninsula.
Factors such as the massive increase in the population of the planet and the untapped use of environmental resources have left their impact on the environment, including water resources, to meet the economic needs. Water resources have long been considered as important issues in the domestic policy scene, especially in arid and low-water areas such as the Middle East. Water experts predict that in the not too distant tensions, national, regional and international conflicts will increase the water issue, and since all need fresh and clean water, it will not be distant that the future wars of the world will be over. Water resources. In the past 50 years, there have been 37 cases of violence among countries over water, all of which are in the Middle East, except for seven.
As the UN says, water scarcity is an acute crisis throughout the Middle East. A crisis that can only be controlled through macroeconomic and realistic planning based on international interactions, using all the capabilities and capabilities. This article, using library and documentary studies, studies the status and dimensions of the water crisis in the Middle East, and challenges and solutions to this problem. Given what has been achieved, what is needed is to create a global plan and action to ensure access to safe water for the world. Developing national and regional policies and increasing international aid to developing and underdeveloped countries, especially in the Middle East region, will be very effective in tackling this problem alongside this global agenda.4 4.
TourismIn 2017, the tourism industry in the Middle East has enjoyed a relative boom thanks to Russian and Chinese travelers. According to the World Tourism Organization’s annual report, this year, the Middle East attracted 58 million foreign tourists, and the tourism industry in this region grew 4.8 percent year-on-year. In 2016, the number of tourists in the Middle East declined, especially as a result of terrorist attacks in Tunisia, Turkey and Egypt. In general, Middle Eastern countries are hoping to attract more tourists from Russia and China in the next couple of years, as well as increase the number of domestic voyages, AFP reported. For example, Egypt is now expecting more tourists to come from neighboring countries. In 2017, the number of tourists arrived in Egypt rose 55% year-on-year.
But unlike previous years, the main contribution of these tourists is not the European. According to one Egyptian tourist official, before the year 2010, about 80% of European and Russian passengers were dropped, but now this figure has fallen by 50%. Instead, Chinese and Indian travelers have suddenly grown in Egypt.
Most importantly, only 15% of the Egyptian tourism industry was previously dependent on the Arab countries of the region, up from 30% last year. Turkey, which faced a sharp decline in passenger traffic in 2016, increased its tourist numbers by 33% in 2017. Turkey hopes that foreign tourists will exceed 40 million tourists in 2018. It is expected that the Russians will form the main part of these tourists. Iranians, Ukrainians, Georgians and Bulgarians also have an important contribution to tourists entering Turkey. This is also important for countries like Egypt and Turkey, which is not as affordable as the European and American tourists, given the average money spent by each tourist.The Middle Eastnote 1 is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century.Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.2 Minorities of the Middle East include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians (including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community.
European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Bosniaks, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines, and Italo-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Bengalis as well as other Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Indonesians, Pakistanis, and Sub-Saharan Africans.The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the (geopolitical) importance of the region being recognized for millennia.345 Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; the Baha’i faith, Mandaeism, Unitarian Druze, and numerous other belief systems were also established within the region.The Middle East generally has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia, and most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent.
Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports.3 CONCLUSIONWhat is nowadays misunderstood today in the Middle East has been shaped and expanded as a result of influence. Therefore, the need to redefine this region is not based on Western-oriented views but on the basis of a scientific approach based on the realities of the Islamic countries of the region.
From a geographical point of view, the Middle East term is one that is false in the area that is contemplated today. If we want to divide the West into another (West), then it will be divided into the Near East, the Middle East, and the Far East. Accordingly, what is now called the Middle East is geographically, the Near East, not the Middle East.Accordingly, it is located on the same side as Europe and on the other side of Asia. Therefore, considering this range, what is now known as the misunderstanding of the Middle East, must be called the Counsel. In general, it can be said that the prevalence of this false term has been shaped and exacerbated by influence.Therefore, as mentioned above, the need to redefine the term based on the native approaches and the interests of the Islamic countries of the Middle East is felt more and more and the definition of the Middle East is the best definition that can be presented now.So the Middle East that we know based on our research, as mentioned in the article, includes the following geographic countries and territories: Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Emirates, Oman, Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon , Syria, Palestine and Egypt.4