Title-Emergence and Sustenance of E-Vehicles in India             Introduction of theProject                      Literature Review 1.     Author-Mukherjee, Sharmistha. The economic Times; New Delhi, 30thSeptember, 2017 Title- Auto firms seek GST relieffor E-vehicles.  The Manufacturers of ElectricVehicles have requested the Finance ministry of India to exempt electricvehicles under GST and incentivize consumers to purchase these products. Thewhole industry is concerned that if electric vehicles are brought in the lowesttax slab, prices would rise and come closer to those of petrol or dieselvehicles, which then will affect their demand in the market. The financeministry has indicated that it doesn’t favour giving incentives under GST. 2.

     Author-Leggett, Dave. Just-auto global news; Bromsgrove, 26th January 2015 Title- China: E-vehicles headingfor 11% of all china new vehicle sales in 2020s. AKMPG Survey of automobile industry said that electrified vehicles are expectedto account for at least 11% of new vehicles sold in China in the next decade onthe back of growing environmental awareness and stricter regulations.

68% ofthe population in Chinese respondents expect e-vehicle sales-hybrid, batterycell and fuel cell units. Rising air pollution in China, higher fuel costs,strict emission standards and rapid urbanization will ensure that the hugepotential for electric cars is eventually realized, although this will requirefurther innovation and disruption across the automotive ecosystem, and helpfrom regulations and tax incentives. 3.     Author-Chanchal Pal Chauhan, The Economic Times, New Delhi, 26th September,2017 Title- Government to help companiesdevelop technology for hybrid, e-vehicles. Thegovernment is setting up a new body with a corpus of up to Rs 200 crore to helpcompanies develop environment- friendly technologies for hybrid and electricvehicles, said a senior government official. The National Electric MobilityMission will try to promote eco-friendly technologies as an alternative to theuse of non-renewable fuels such as petrol and diesel that dominate the Indiancar and two-wheeler market. This will also help control air pollution in thecountry. The new body will help electric vehicle makers to develop technologyto lower the cost of batteries, which comprises a third of the total productprice.

National Electric Mobility Mission will have representatives of variousministries including Road, Transport , Environment andScience to promote fuel efficient vehicles with low-costtechnology.          Objectives of the Study 1.     Toknow why Electric Vehicles can get enough consumer attraction. 2.     Tostudy the government initiatives taken for promoting Electric Vehicles andsubsidies provided on Electric Vehicles Batteries. 3.     ToStudy how the cost of Electric Vehicles can be reduced to make it affordablefor the consumers.

 4.     ToStudy the Current threats this is causing slow growth of Electric Vehicles. 5.     Thefuture of Electric Vehicles in India. 6.     Impactof Electric Vehicles on the economy and environment. 7.

     Tostudy the projected marketing and operational strategies by the company. 8.     Tostudy the basic infrastructure support that will be required by the ElectricVehicle for sustenance in India.

          Introduction ofE-vehicles India is one of the top ten automobile markets inthe world and because of its rapidly increasing population with buyingpotential and the steady economic growth and increasing economic growth,automobile sales is expected to grow.As countries seek to address future energy requirements in a rapidlygrowing and changing world, achieving sustainable transportation has emerged asa vital mission. Electric vehicles (EVs), in particular, represent one of themost promising pathways to increased energy security and reduced emissions ofgreenhouse gases and other pollutants.The potential for alternative technologies in automobiles like ElectricVehicles in India and other comparable markets depends on improved batterytechnologies, driving ranges, government incentives, regulations, lower pricesand better charging infrastructure.By helping to diversify the fuel mix, EVs reduce dependence on petroleum and tap into a source ofelectricity that is often domestic and relatively inexpensive. Just asimportant, EVs have the potential to unlock innovation and create new advancedindustries that spur job growth and enhance economic prosperity.Electrified road transport has beenaround in some form for more than 100 years, although by the 1930s its use bylight-duty passenger cars was displaced almost entirely by the petroleum-fueledinternal combustion engine (ICE). EVs appeared on the market both in the early1900s and briefly in the 1990s.

In the last 10 years the world has againconsidered vehicle electrification in light of increasing and volatile oilprices, deteriorating urban air quality, and climate change. This renewedinterest represents a “third age” of electric vehicles, starting with themass-market introduction of EVs in 2010.The government would support manufacturing andselling of Electric Vehicles by giving incentives like lower road taxes so thatthe automobile sector continues to play a major role in India’s GDP and jobcreation of the country. He said in the long run, India must become a majormanufacturer of automobiles, interoperable charging stations, and help reducepollution in cities, and this will be done in a manner which will not disruptcombustion vehicle manufacturing.The automobile industry and automobile component industryis one of the key drivers of India’s economic growth, contributing 7.2% to theGDP.Electric MotorThe power of the Electric Vehicle motor, as comparedwith other vehicles, is measured in kilowatts (kW), 100 kW is roughlyequivalent to 134 horsepower. Electric motors are mechanically very simple.

Electric motors often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency over a fullrange of speeds and power output can be precisely controlled. Electric vehicles provide quiet and smooth operationand consequently have less noise and vibration than internal combustionengines. While this is a desirable attribute, it has also raised seriousconcern that the absence of the usual engine sounds of an approaching vehiclesposes a danger to blind, elderly and very young pedestrians. To mitigate thissituation, automakers and individual companies are developing systems thatproduce warning sounds when electric vehicle is moving slowly.           Companies that aregoing to introduce Electric Vehicles in India As Global Warming rises to alarming levels in thecountry, the government bodies leaving no stone unturned to curb the risingpollution levels. The government bodies calls for complete defuelation of theautomobiles. The government bodies have announced that the Indian automobileindustry will only have Electric Vehicles running on the road by 2030. So,along with government bodies, the automakers have also started to take thesimilar steps to curb the rising pollution problem.

So, let’s look at thesoon-to-be- launched Electric Vehicles in the country.1.     TeslaInc. – Tesla Inc. is an American automaker, Energy Storage company, and solarpower manufacturer.

The company was founded in 2003, the company specializes inelectric cars, lithium-ion battery energy storage. The first-ever Tesla haslanded in India, and it’s blue Model X with its steering on the right side. Itcould be a personal vehicle and not meant for official testing. Tesla allowedIndians to book the Model 3 but hasn’t signaled if or when it’ll arrive.

The company has launched various modelsovertime like the Model S, Model X and the latest Model3. The Model 3 derivesits power from a 60kWh battery driving either the rear or all four wheels. Themodel 3 features Tesla’s Autopilot technology as standard. India launch isexpected to take place in the second half of 2018 and expected price for thesame is INR 35 lakh.2.     ToyotaIndia- Toyota and Suzuki have entered into a Joint Venture to manufactureElectric cars in India. The car will be manufactured at Suzuki facilities, thetechnical support will be rendered by Toyota.

Its launch is expected by theyear 2020.3.     Renault-Renault has confirmed that it’s working on a Renault kwid Electric cars forChinese market.

And if the low cost Electric Vehicle is successful in Chinesemarket, the carmaker will export it to other countries including India. TheElectric Car is expected to hit the store in the year 2022. 4.     Mahindra-Mahindra and Mahindra is only the Indian automaker who promised to deliver twonew Electric Vehicles by the year 2019. The two new Electric Vehicles areMahindra KUV100 EV and Mahindra SUV 500 EV. Mahindra KUV 100 EV has beenspotted testing recently, indicating an early launch.

The upcoming SUV 500 EVwill be the highest range among the available Mahindra Electric vehicles. The 380V system is being developedexclusively for the SUV/MPV range and will also underpin the TUV 100 electricMPV. The XUV Aero EV is slated for launch by 2020 and is expected to be pricedaround INR 30 lakh.The second upcoming electric vehicle from Mahindra’s table isthe TUV 300 electric and the same was confirmed by the company’s CEO, MaheshBabu. Upon launch, the TUV 300 electric will host a range of 350km on a fullcharge and will accelerate from 0 to 100km/h in just 9 seconds.

The top speedis expected to be 186km/h. The electric MPV will be unveiled at the 2018 AutoExpo with the launch in the following months. The Mahindra TUV 300 Electric isexpected to be priced around INR 10-12 lakh.The Mahindra SsangYong Tivoli Electric will be the firstelectric mini-SUV from the automaker. Codenamed S201, the Tivoli electric isbeing developed for the Indian market in conjunction with the Mahindra Electricdivision. The Tivoli Electric is expected to launch in India around early 2019and will offer its customers a range of 250km on a single charge. Expectedprice for the electric SUV is INR 18-25 lakh.

 5.     Tata-Tata Motors stunned everyone by bagging the 10,000 electric cars orders fromthe Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) Limited. The carmaker will besupplying the Tata Tigor and Tiago Electric Vehicle under this contract. It is rumoured that the electric sedan will get an 85 kW electric motorand will weigh 200kg less than the standard sedan. However, there’s no confirmationon its mechanicals as of now. As there was a range limit of 130km per charge inEESL’s tender, the electric sedan will have more than 130km per charge capacityfor sure. The Tigor EV featuresa 29.

98kW electric motor and the company offers a 3-year warranty on theelectric sedan. The Tigor EV is priced at INR 10.16 exclusive of GST.6.     HrimanMotors- Hriman Motors, a Delhi Headquartered startup, is working on building atwo seater Electric car, named RT90 with a battery that will never need to bereplaced. It will offer a 4G Connected Internet of Things, with 200kms maximumtravel range per charge.

A single charge will take about ten minutes on a fastDC Charger and 1-2 hours on an AC Charger. The vehicle is undergoing roadtrials and expects to hit the market by mid-2018. In two years, the company iscoming up with three products- two-seater Electric car, six-seater electriccity transporter bus and a four-seater electric car.7.     Hyundai-The South Korean carmaker has said that Hyundai Motor India Ltd will introduceits electric vehicle brand Ioniq in India to tap into India’s ambition ofhaving electric cars by the year 2030. Ioniq, the brand under which the SouthKorean carmaker sells electric, hybrid and plug-in hybrid cars globally, isexpected to be showcased at the forthcoming Auto Expo scheduled to be held inFebruary 2018. The Ioniq featuresfuturistic exterior and interior design. The 28kWh battery pack will beborrowed from the Kona and offers a minimum range of about 200km on a singlecharge.

Hyundai is expected to price the electric sedan around INR 20 to 25lakh. The second Electric car which the company is offering is mini-SUVKona’s Electric version. Under theboot is a 28kWh battery that gives the Kona electric enough juice to run for384km on a single charge. Hyundai is expected to launch the Kona electric inIndia by last 2018 or early 2019. Price expected for the same is INR 25 to 30lakh.

8.     Nissan-One of the most successfulall-electric cars, the Leaf is India bound and will be launching in the comingmonths. The latest iteration of the Nissan Leaf was launched in Japan inSeptember this year followed by the global unveiling at the 2017 FrankfurtMotor Show.

The second generation of the Leaf brings in advanced aerodynamics,latest in tech along with improved efficiency. The 40kWh battery gives the Leafa range of 400km on a single charge. Charging time for the battery remains 6 to8 hours but customers can opt for an optional fast charger which charges thebattery pack up to 80% in just 40 minutes. Nissan is expected to price the leafaround INR 35 lakh.9.

     BMW- i5- The only competition to Tesla’supcoming Model 3 in India would be BMW’s i5 electric sedan. Unveiled recentlyat the 2017 Frankfurt Motor Show, i5 will be BMW’s first all-electric sedan.BMW plans to introduce 12 all-electric vehicles in the international market bythe year 2025.

The i5 will sprint from standstill to 100km/h in just 4 secondswhile attaining a top speed of 200km/h. The most impressive feature of the i5is the range of 600km on a single charge. BMW is expected to launch the i5 inIndia by 2020 at an expected price of about INR 1 crore.10.                        Jaguar i-Pace- Jaguar is getting serious whenit comes to developing all-electric platforms, the i-Pace being the first ofthe offering.

The production of the Jaguar i-Pace is slated to start by end of2018 with the deliveries starting early 2019. Powering the concept i-Pace aretwo 150kW motors being powered by a 90kWh lithium-ion battery pack. Thedrivetrain has a maximum output of around 400bhp and 700Nm of torque. Thebattery pack offers a range of 345km on a single charge. The i-Pace is expectedto launch in India by 2020 and will be priced around INR 1 Crore. Let’s have a look at the list of Electric Vehiclesthat are available in India: Fully Electric Cars·       Mahindra e2oPlus·       Mahindra e-Verito·       Tata Tigor Electric         Hybrid Cars·       Toyota Prius·       Toyota Camry Hybrid·       BMWi8·       Mahindra Scorpio Micro Hybrid·       Maruti Suzuki Ciaz Diesel SHVS·       Maruti Suzuki Ertiga Diesel SHVS         Motorcycles and Scooters·       Ather Energy Pvt Ltd·        TorkMotors·        Heroelectric·        TunwalE Vehicles private limited·        LohiaAuto Industries·        YObykes·        BPG·        BSAmotors·       TVS·       EKO·       Okinawa Autotech Pvt. Ltd.·       OK PLAY·       AVERA New and Renewable Energy Moto Corp TechPvt Ltd          Bicycles·       Hulikkal Electro India Pvt Ltd·       Amphere Vehicles·       BSA Motors·       EBike India·       Electrotherm           Buses·      India’sfirst electric bus was launched in Bangalore in 2014.

·      AshokLeyland launched its electric bus in October 2016. ·      TataMotors launched its pure electric bus ‘Starbus Electric 9m’ and hybrid ‘StarBusElectric 12m’ in January 2017. ·      GoldstoneInfratech Supplied Himachal Pradesh Transport Corporation with 25 electricbuses in September 2017.           Mini pickup trucks·       Mahindra·       Tata Motors, Ace Electric in 2016·       Ashok Leyland, Dost Electric pick up truck           Rickshaws·       Volta Motors·       Kinetic Green·       Gayam Motor Works·       Mahindra Electric·       Amphere Vehicles·       Go Green BOV·       OK play        Railways·       Indian Railways has a long history of electriclocomotives, first use in 1925. On 31 March 2017,government announced that the entire rail network in the country will beelectrified by 2022.

                                               Charging Station Infrastructure and its Challenges for the Indian Market ·       Requirement of Charging StationInfrastructure- Charging Station plays a vital role in Electric Vehicledeployment and in the absence of a proper planning and scheduling, the road mapof electrifying the vehicles by 2030 remains untapped. Infrastructure limitationsare particularly pertinent to BEVs due to their sole dependency on electricity.The charging infrastructure includes all of the hardware and software thatensures energy is transferred from the electric grid to the vehicle.

It can becategorized by location, power level and charging time strategy. Charginglocations combined with an acceptable charging time strategy increases BEVfunctionality and decreases public charging requirements. The approximation ofthe electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) needed at different types oflocations (e.g., Home, Work and Commercial Parking) is proposed based on anoptimal charging strategy.·       Indian Current Scenario- Introduction oflarge scale Plug-in electric Vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles and batteryelectric vehicles have the potential to improve the Indian energy currentscenario. The central government should start enforcing necessary measures toinstall Electric Vehicle charging infrastructure. With a projection of ElectricVehicles, the effects on current, energy production, transmission anddistribution scheme, road traffic density, emission level and parking spacerequirement need to be analyzed.

The operations and maintenance of installed infrastructureshould be maintained properly and time to time. Instead of direct involvementof government bodies, private players can be roped in order to maintain thesmooth work flow.·       Algorithm for Charging Stationselection- Central management through Charging Station Selection server (CSS)will play a vital role in information transfer between EVs-Server-Controlcentres. Charging Station Selection server (CSS) traces the instantaneouslocation of a vehicle and taps the range available with it. It proposes all thecharging stations covering the limit.CSS communicates with other vehicles todetermine the road traffic and gives an approximate time and charge remaining,until a specific charging station is reached. It also suggests an alternateroute to the nearest charging station in case of heavy traffic. The driverchooses the charging type and blocks a slot considering least waiting time.

TheCSS uses mobile network to communicate with the vehicle and Charging Stations.It also proposes the current metering scheme at particular Charging Station andcompares with other Charging Station price. It also can be donethrough a demand based metering system where EVs will be charged according topeak time and peak load.  ·       Smart Chargers- According to studies,India will have close to 1 lakh EVs by 2020. To support this huge network,there is a requirement for smart chargers.

Apart from public charging stations,India needs to work on mass charging stations at work places and parkingtowers. To minimize peak load charging, smart chargers have to cut off power toparticular vehicles once it reaches a 70%-80% of charging and divert the sameto other cars. Most of the offices in India are small and distributed. So wecan have a common parking tower for all the offices at a particular zone wheresmart charging can be implemented, which will otherwise minimize the individualimplementation cost. 

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