Emergence and Sustenance of E-Vehicles in India














Introduction of the

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Literature Review


1.     Author-
Mukherjee, Sharmistha. The economic Times; New Delhi, 30th
September, 2017


Title- Auto firms seek GST relief
for E-vehicles.


The Manufacturers of Electric
Vehicles have requested the Finance ministry of India to exempt electric
vehicles under GST and incentivize consumers to purchase these products. The
whole industry is concerned that if electric vehicles are brought in the lowest
tax slab, prices would rise and come closer to those of petrol or diesel
vehicles, which then will affect their demand in the market. The finance
ministry has indicated that it doesn’t favour giving incentives under GST.


2.     Author-
Leggett, Dave. Just-auto global news; Bromsgrove, 26th January 2015


Title- China: E-vehicles heading
for 11% of all china new vehicle sales in 2020s.


KMPG Survey of automobile industry said that electrified vehicles are expected
to account for at least 11% of new vehicles sold in China in the next decade on
the back of growing environmental awareness and stricter regulations. 68% of
the population in Chinese respondents expect e-vehicle sales-hybrid, battery
cell and fuel cell units. Rising air pollution in China, higher fuel costs,
strict emission standards and rapid urbanization will ensure that the huge
potential for electric cars is eventually realized, although this will require
further innovation and disruption across the automotive ecosystem, and help
from regulations and tax incentives.


3.     Author-
Chanchal Pal Chauhan, The Economic Times, New Delhi, 26th September,


Title- Government to help companies
develop technology for hybrid, e-vehicles.


government is setting up a new body with a corpus of up to Rs 200 crore to help
companies develop environment- friendly technologies for hybrid and electric
vehicles, said a senior government official. The National Electric Mobility
Mission will try to promote eco-friendly technologies as an alternative to the
use of non-renewable fuels such as petrol and diesel that dominate the Indian
car and two-wheeler market. This will also help control air pollution in the
country. The new body will help electric vehicle makers to develop technology
to lower the cost of batteries, which comprises a third of the total product
price. National Electric Mobility Mission will have representatives of various
ministries including Road, Transport , Environment and
Science to promote fuel efficient vehicles with low-cost











Objectives of the Study


1.     To
know why Electric Vehicles can get enough consumer attraction.


2.     To
study the government initiatives taken for promoting Electric Vehicles and
subsidies provided on Electric Vehicles Batteries.


3.     To
Study how the cost of Electric Vehicles can be reduced to make it affordable
for the consumers.


4.     To
Study the Current threats this is causing slow growth of Electric Vehicles.


5.     The
future of Electric Vehicles in India.


6.     Impact
of Electric Vehicles on the economy and environment.


7.     To
study the projected marketing and operational strategies by the company.


8.     To
study the basic infrastructure support that will be required by the Electric
Vehicle for sustenance in India.











Introduction of


India is one of the top ten automobile markets in
the world and because of its rapidly increasing population with buying
potential and the steady economic growth and increasing economic growth,
automobile sales is expected to grow.

As countries seek to address future energy requirements in a rapidly
growing and changing world, achieving sustainable transportation has emerged as
a vital mission. Electric vehicles (EVs), in particular, represent one of the
most promising pathways to increased energy security and reduced emissions of
greenhouse gases and other pollutants.

The potential for alternative technologies in automobiles like Electric
Vehicles in India and other comparable markets depends on improved battery
technologies, driving ranges, government incentives, regulations, lower prices
and better charging infrastructure.

By helping to diversify the fuel mix, EVs reduce dependence on petroleum and tap into a source of
electricity that is often domestic and relatively inexpensive. Just as
important, EVs have the potential to unlock innovation and create new advanced
industries that spur job growth and enhance economic prosperity.

Electrified road transport has been
around in some form for more than 100 years, although by the 1930s its use by
light-duty passenger cars was displaced almost entirely by the petroleum-fueled
internal combustion engine (ICE). EVs appeared on the market both in the early
1900s and briefly in the 1990s. In the last 10 years the world has again
considered vehicle electrification in light of increasing and volatile oil
prices, deteriorating urban air quality, and climate change. This renewed
interest represents a “third age” of electric vehicles, starting with the
mass-market introduction of EVs in 2010.

The government would support manufacturing and
selling of Electric Vehicles by giving incentives like lower road taxes so that
the automobile sector continues to play a major role in India’s GDP and job
creation of the country. He said in the long run, India must become a major
manufacturer of automobiles, interoperable charging stations, and help reduce
pollution in cities, and this will be done in a manner which will not disrupt
combustion vehicle manufacturing.

The automobile industry and automobile component industry
is one of the key drivers of India’s economic growth, contributing 7.2% to the

Electric Motor

The power of the Electric Vehicle motor, as compared
with other vehicles, is measured in kilowatts (kW), 100 kW is roughly
equivalent to 134 horsepower. Electric motors are mechanically very simple.
Electric motors often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency over a full
range of speeds and power output can be precisely controlled.

Electric vehicles provide quiet and smooth operation
and consequently have less noise and vibration than internal combustion
engines. While this is a desirable attribute, it has also raised serious
concern that the absence of the usual engine sounds of an approaching vehicles
poses a danger to blind, elderly and very young pedestrians. To mitigate this
situation, automakers and individual companies are developing systems that
produce warning sounds when electric vehicle is moving slowly.











Companies that are
going to introduce Electric Vehicles in India


As Global Warming rises to alarming levels in the
country, the government bodies leaving no stone unturned to curb the rising
pollution levels. The government bodies calls for complete defuelation of the
automobiles. The government bodies have announced that the Indian automobile
industry will only have Electric Vehicles running on the road by 2030. So,
along with government bodies, the automakers have also started to take the
similar steps to curb the rising pollution problem. So, let’s look at the
soon-to-be- launched Electric Vehicles in the country.

1.     Tesla
Inc. – Tesla Inc. is an American automaker, Energy Storage company, and solar
power manufacturer. The company was founded in 2003, the company specializes in
electric cars, lithium-ion battery energy storage. The first-ever Tesla has
landed in India, and it’s blue Model X with its steering on the right side. It
could be a personal vehicle and not meant for official testing. Tesla allowed
Indians to book the Model 3 but hasn’t signaled if or when it’ll arrive. The company has launched various models
overtime like the Model S, Model X and the latest Model3. The Model 3 derives
its power from a 60kWh battery driving either the rear or all four wheels. The
model 3 features Tesla’s Autopilot technology as standard. India launch is
expected to take place in the second half of 2018 and expected price for the
same is INR 35 lakh.

2.     Toyota
India- Toyota and Suzuki have entered into a Joint Venture to manufacture
Electric cars in India. The car will be manufactured at Suzuki facilities, the
technical support will be rendered by Toyota. Its launch is expected by the
year 2020.

3.     Renault-
Renault has confirmed that it’s working on a Renault kwid Electric cars for
Chinese market. And if the low cost Electric Vehicle is successful in Chinese
market, the carmaker will export it to other countries including India. The
Electric Car is expected to hit the store in the year 2022.

4.     Mahindra-
Mahindra and Mahindra is only the Indian automaker who promised to deliver two
new Electric Vehicles by the year 2019. The two new Electric Vehicles are
Mahindra KUV100 EV and Mahindra SUV 500 EV. Mahindra KUV 100 EV has been
spotted testing recently, indicating an early launch. The upcoming SUV 500 EV
will be the highest range among the available Mahindra Electric vehicles. The 380V system is being developed
exclusively for the SUV/MPV range and will also underpin the TUV 100 electric
MPV. The XUV Aero EV is slated for launch by 2020 and is expected to be priced
around INR 30 lakh.

The second upcoming electric vehicle from Mahindra’s table is
the TUV 300 electric and the same was confirmed by the company’s CEO, Mahesh
Babu. Upon launch, the TUV 300 electric will host a range of 350km on a full
charge and will accelerate from 0 to 100km/h in just 9 seconds. The top speed
is expected to be 186km/h. The electric MPV will be unveiled at the 2018 Auto
Expo with the launch in the following months. The Mahindra TUV 300 Electric is
expected to be priced around INR 10-12 lakh.

The Mahindra SsangYong Tivoli Electric will be the first
electric mini-SUV from the automaker. Codenamed S201, the Tivoli electric is
being developed for the Indian market in conjunction with the Mahindra Electric
division. The Tivoli Electric is expected to launch in India around early 2019
and will offer its customers a range of 250km on a single charge. Expected
price for the electric SUV is INR 18-25 lakh.


5.     Tata-
Tata Motors stunned everyone by bagging the 10,000 electric cars orders from
the Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) Limited. The carmaker will be
supplying the Tata Tigor and Tiago Electric Vehicle under this contract. It is rumoured that the electric sedan will get an 85 kW electric motor
and will weigh 200kg less than the standard sedan. However, there’s no confirmation
on its mechanicals as of now. As there was a range limit of 130km per charge in
EESL’s tender, the electric sedan will have more than 130km per charge capacity
for sure. The Tigor EV features
a 29.98kW electric motor and the company offers a 3-year warranty on the
electric sedan. The Tigor EV is priced at INR 10.16 exclusive of GST.

6.     Hriman
Motors- Hriman Motors, a Delhi Headquartered startup, is working on building a
two seater Electric car, named RT90 with a battery that will never need to be
replaced. It will offer a 4G Connected Internet of Things, with 200kms maximum
travel range per charge. A single charge will take about ten minutes on a fast
DC Charger and 1-2 hours on an AC Charger. The vehicle is undergoing road
trials and expects to hit the market by mid-2018. In two years, the company is
coming up with three products- two-seater Electric car, six-seater electric
city transporter bus and a four-seater electric car.

7.     Hyundai-
The South Korean carmaker has said that Hyundai Motor India Ltd will introduce
its electric vehicle brand Ioniq in India to tap into India’s ambition of
having electric cars by the year 2030. Ioniq, the brand under which the South
Korean carmaker sells electric, hybrid and plug-in hybrid cars globally, is
expected to be showcased at the forthcoming Auto Expo scheduled to be held in
February 2018. The Ioniq features
futuristic exterior and interior design. The 28kWh battery pack will be
borrowed from the Kona and offers a minimum range of about 200km on a single
charge. Hyundai is expected to price the electric sedan around INR 20 to 25
lakh. The second Electric car which the company is offering is mini-SUV
Kona’s Electric version. Under the
boot is a 28kWh battery that gives the Kona electric enough juice to run for
384km on a single charge. Hyundai is expected to launch the Kona electric in
India by last 2018 or early 2019. Price expected for the same is INR 25 to 30

8.     Nissan-
One of the most successful
all-electric cars, the Leaf is India bound and will be launching in the coming
months. The latest iteration of the Nissan Leaf was launched in Japan in
September this year followed by the global unveiling at the 2017 Frankfurt
Motor Show. The second generation of the Leaf brings in advanced aerodynamics,
latest in tech along with improved efficiency. The 40kWh battery gives the Leaf
a range of 400km on a single charge. Charging time for the battery remains 6 to
8 hours but customers can opt for an optional fast charger which charges the
battery pack up to 80% in just 40 minutes. Nissan is expected to price the leaf
around INR 35 lakh.

9.     BMW- i5- The only competition to Tesla’s
upcoming Model 3 in India would be BMW’s i5 electric sedan. Unveiled recently
at the 2017 Frankfurt Motor Show, i5 will be BMW’s first all-electric sedan.
BMW plans to introduce 12 all-electric vehicles in the international market by
the year 2025. The i5 will sprint from standstill to 100km/h in just 4 seconds
while attaining a top speed of 200km/h. The most impressive feature of the i5
is the range of 600km on a single charge. BMW is expected to launch the i5 in
India by 2020 at an expected price of about INR 1 crore.

 Jaguar i-Pace- Jaguar is getting serious when
it comes to developing all-electric platforms, the i-Pace being the first of
the offering. The production of the Jaguar i-Pace is slated to start by end of
2018 with the deliveries starting early 2019. Powering the concept i-Pace are
two 150kW motors being powered by a 90kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The
drivetrain has a maximum output of around 400bhp and 700Nm of torque. The
battery pack offers a range of 345km on a single charge. The i-Pace is expected
to launch in India by 2020 and will be priced around INR 1 Crore.


Let’s have a look at the list of Electric Vehicles
that are available in India:


Fully Electric Cars

Mahindra e2oPlus

Mahindra e-Verito

Tata Tigor Electric

Hybrid Cars

Toyota Prius

Toyota Camry Hybrid


Mahindra Scorpio Micro Hybrid

Maruti Suzuki Ciaz Diesel SHVS

Maruti Suzuki Ertiga Diesel SHVS

Motorcycles and Scooters

·       Ather Energy Pvt Ltd

·        Tork

·        Hero

·        Tunwal
E Vehicles private limited

·        Lohia
Auto Industries

·        YObykes

·        BPG

·        BSA

·       TVS

·       EKO

·       Okinawa Autotech Pvt. Ltd.

·       OK PLAY

·       AVERA New and Renewable Energy Moto Corp Tech
Pvt Ltd


·       Hulikkal Electro India Pvt Ltd

·       Amphere Vehicles

·       BSA Motors

·       EBike India

·       Electrotherm


first electric bus was launched in Bangalore in 2014.

Leyland launched its electric bus in October 2016.

Motors launched its pure electric bus ‘Starbus Electric 9m’ and hybrid ‘StarBus
Electric 12m’ in January 2017.

Infratech Supplied Himachal Pradesh Transport Corporation with 25 electric
buses in September 2017.

           Mini pickup trucks

·       Mahindra

·       Tata Motors, Ace Electric in 2016

·       Ashok Leyland, Dost Electric pick up truck


·       Volta Motors

·       Kinetic Green

·       Gayam Motor Works

·       Mahindra Electric

·       Amphere Vehicles

·       Go Green BOV

·       OK play


·       Indian Railways has a long history of electric
locomotives, first use in 1925. On 31 March 2017,
government announced that the entire rail network in the country will be
electrified by 2022.
















Charging Station Infrastructure and its Challenges for the Indian Market


Requirement of Charging Station
Infrastructure- Charging Station plays a vital role in Electric Vehicle
deployment and in the absence of a proper planning and scheduling, the road map
of electrifying the vehicles by 2030 remains untapped. Infrastructure limitations
are particularly pertinent to BEVs due to their sole dependency on electricity.
The charging infrastructure includes all of the hardware and software that
ensures energy is transferred from the electric grid to the vehicle. It can be
categorized by location, power level and charging time strategy. Charging
locations combined with an acceptable charging time strategy increases BEV
functionality and decreases public charging requirements. The approximation of
the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) needed at different types of
locations (e.g., Home, Work and Commercial Parking) is proposed based on an
optimal charging strategy.

Indian Current Scenario- Introduction of
large scale Plug-in electric Vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles and battery
electric vehicles have the potential to improve the Indian energy current
scenario. The central government should start enforcing necessary measures to
install Electric Vehicle charging infrastructure. With a projection of Electric
Vehicles, the effects on current, energy production, transmission and
distribution scheme, road traffic density, emission level and parking space
requirement need to be analyzed. The operations and maintenance of installed infrastructure
should be maintained properly and time to time. Instead of direct involvement
of government bodies, private players can be roped in order to maintain the
smooth work flow.

Algorithm for Charging Station
selection- Central management through Charging Station Selection server (CSS)
will play a vital role in information transfer between EVs-Server-Control
centres. Charging Station Selection server (CSS) traces the instantaneous
location of a vehicle and taps the range available with it. It proposes all the
charging stations covering the limit.CSS communicates with other vehicles to
determine the road traffic and gives an approximate time and charge remaining,
until a specific charging station is reached. It also suggests an alternate
route to the nearest charging station in case of heavy traffic. The driver
chooses the charging type and blocks a slot considering least waiting time. The
CSS uses mobile network to communicate with the vehicle and Charging Stations.
It also proposes the current metering scheme at particular Charging Station and
compares with other Charging Station price. It also can be done
through a demand based metering system where EVs will be charged according to
peak time and peak load.  

Smart Chargers- According to studies,
India will have close to 1 lakh EVs by 2020. To support this huge network,
there is a requirement for smart chargers. Apart from public charging stations,
India needs to work on mass charging stations at work places and parking
towers. To minimize peak load charging, smart chargers have to cut off power to
particular vehicles once it reaches a 70%-80% of charging and divert the same
to other cars. Most of the offices in India are small and distributed. So we
can have a common parking tower for all the offices at a particular zone where
smart charging can be implemented, which will otherwise minimize the individual
implementation cost.



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