Title – Theeffect of high intensity exercise on coincidence anticipation reaction time.

 Abstract –Currentlymultiple pieces of research investigate the factors effecting coincidenceanticipation time such as age, experience and arousal this article will look athow high intensity exercise can effect the anticipation reaction time. Thereare 15 participants in the study (14 Male and 1 Female) with an age range of19-35 (21±4). The Bassin CAT LED test is used to determine pre-exercise andpost-exercise anticipation reaction times. The study uses a cycle ergometer toenable participants to reach a THR90% (90% of Target Heart Rate). Theresults show that the times taken to react to the stimulus were quicker beforetaking part in high intensity exercise. This could conclude that there is anegative effect between high intensity exercise and coincidence anticipationreaction times.

 Introduction – Currentresearch into exercise intensity and anticipation is still inconclusive asthere are different results for whether there is a cause effect relationship.Coincidence anticipation is the prediction of an action before it happens.Anticipation is a key skill in sport as being able to predict an event before ithappens can help to prevent an opponent from being able to outwit you.Participating in exercise increases arousal levels which have been identifiedas being a factor that may increase coincidence anticipation reaction time.

Athletes will have different arousal levels to keep them at their peakconcentration. One theory of arousal is the inverted U theory which proposesthat as arousal increases so does performance until a point where over arousalwill deteriorate performance (Yerkes and Dodson, 1908.) When a performerbecomes aroused their alertness is increasing due to the increase of adrenalineand the heart rate also starts to increase. As well as exercise being apossible factor that affects anticipation reaction time, the other factors mayinclude, sex, age, experience and those playing sport and those who do not. Astudy by Lyons et al.

, (2008) looked at the difference of the reaction timebetween novice and expert Gaelic games the study found that the intensity ofexercise in novices does affect their anticipation time and there was nosignificant difference in high intensity exercise for professionals. Age hasalso been another research area in relation to coincidence anticipation timingand it was shown there was a difference in females and age as they got olderthe anticipation timing decreased but there was no significant evidence amongstmales (Kuhlman et al 1992). Thefollowing study by Duncan et al., (2014) shows how the catastrophe arousaltheory correctly predicts how coincidence anticipation will be altereddepending on levels of arousal. In thisstudy the aim that will be being researched is does high intensity exercise effectthe time taken to predict the arrival of a LED light stimulus.

The followingare the hypothesises of the study; There will be no difference in whether highintensity exercise effects anticipation reaction time or There will be a nodifference in whether high intensity exercise effects anticipation reactiontime, at the end of the study a hypothesis will be accepted depending on whatis found.  Method – The study used 15 Participants (14 male, 1 female, with amean age=21±4). The study used a repeated measures design because theparticipants repeated the test twice, once before exercise and once after.

Beforethe main study can take place all the participants are weighed and measured andthis information along with their height and age are recorded. Participants arethen all instructed to practice the Bassin CAT test. The light runs at 10mphwith a two second cue delay and the objective is to stop the light when the LEDflashes at number 13. Participants are allowed 5 practices at the test so thatthey all have the same experience of the test. The resting heart rate of allparticipants is then taken using a polar heart rate monitor, this in then used todetermine their target heart rate when working at 90% maximum. This is done toensure all participants are working at the same rate. The THR90% iscalculated using the following formulae which is cited in Duncan et al., 2013from (Karvonen, Kentala & Mustala, 1957) The formulae is:Target Heart Rate (THR)90% = 90%of heart rate reserveTHR90% = HRrest + 0.

9(HRmax – HRrest)Afterthe target heart rate is calculated participants then start cycling on theMonark cycle ergometer at a start work rate of 175 watts this is because theparticipant needs to be cycling at 70 rates per minute with a resistance of2.5kg. If after 3 minutes the participants are not at their THR90% thenthe resistance needs to be increased in 0.5kg intervals. After 10 minutes ofhigh intensity exercise the Bassin CAT test is repeated and participants heartrate is also recorded. They are then instructed to complete a 5 minute cooldown period of low intensity cycling to reduce the risk of harm to theparticipants. Results– The qualitative results from the pre-exercisetrial show that all the responses were early when anticipating the arrivaltime. This was the same for the post-exercise trials.

 The target thresholds of all participants wascalculated at a mean of 185.97±3.77, however the average maximum recorded heartrate was 179±14. The quantitative results areshown in figure 1 below, the pre-exercise trial results ranged from 0.0136seconds to 0.0946 seconds. This calculates at a mean of 0.

0511±0.0221. The postexercise results ranged from 0.018 – 0.253. With a mean of 0.0675±0.0566.

  Figure 1: Mean and SD of the time taken toreact to the Bassin CAT test Discussion– After exploring the results, the study hasaccepted the alternative hypothesis as there was a change in high intensityexercise and the impact on coincidence anticipation reaction time. The resultsin fig.1 have shown that the effect that high intensity exercise has on thebody could be the possible cause as to why coincidence anticipation times haveincreased, making reactions slower. The figure also shows that in thepost-exercise trials the margin of error is a lot larger suggesting the dataset was a lot wider. A conclusion that can be drawn from this is that theexercise had possibly decreased the alertness of some participants and notothers.

This could link to a number of previous research articles the firstbeing Lyons et al., (2008) whoconducted a study on novice and expert performers. Although the group ofparticipants being studied here were not categorised into skill level theresults could explain that those who deviated a lot faster from the mean couldhave been performers that haveexperienced team sports for numerous years whereas those who take part inindividual sports could have the slower times. This could be because those whotake part in team sports generally have a larger sense of anticipationawareness due to the number of people that they are competing with. Another pieceof research by Duncan et al., (2013)  looksat intensity levels and the high intensity result found for those performing at90% with the anticipation test at 8mp found a larger margin of error with issimilar to this study. When beginning to look at coincidence anticipation andexercise arousal also appeared as a discussion point because when exercising itis proven that arousal increases and theKamijo et al., (2004) study supports this and the Yerkes and Dodson.

,1908 inverted U arousal theory. Also in this study results can show that thosewho did not perform as well in the post exercise task could have been overaroused at a 90% max work rate and therefore their concentration and alertnesscould have decreased. This may have also been a result of the neurones firingeither too often or too little due to a mix up of neural signals because of theincreases in chemical levels within the body.

This would suggest that moreresearch would need to be carried out into both arousal and intensity levelsand how intensity levels alter coincidence anticipation time. This could beadapted from a current study by Duncan et al. 2013 who already exploredintensity and found a difference in reaction times and the error that occurred dueto higher intensities and a quicker reaction test.



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