Thischapter emphasis and targets on research and literature already have done onthe chosen topic, discusses the chronicle and background of the technology inscience, art, architecture, jewelry and fashion etc. As this is aninternational collection which is influenced by high technology however no workhas done in women’swear using high tech techniques and methods in Pakistan thatresearcher used to design women’swear collection. Furthermore, thischapter comprise of a number of online sources and books which are discussed toget better understanding of topic as purpose is to determine the methods whichhave been used in previous research on the chosen topic, allocate contrasts forresearcher’s findings and rationalize the gap that has been identified inFashion industry for women ‘swear. 2.2BackgroundThepresent day meaning of the word “transhumanism” which is abbreviatedas H+ was prognosticate by transhumanist philosopher FM-2030 which was earliersearched on by various professors, biologist, philosophers, was one of the greatfirst professor of futurology brought new concept of a human in the 1960s, whenhe started to analyzed and recognized people who espouse technological lifestylesas “transitional” from humanity to post humanity as transhuman. The rudimentaryconcepts of transhumanism were first promoted by the British geneticist J. B.

S. Haldane in 1923 in Daedalus: Science and the Future which wasan essay that predicted the future full of possibilities with huge advantagethat would come from utilization of high tech and sciences to human anatomywhich would first appear to someone as blasphemy as it is considered to beunnatural”. (whatistranshumanism, n.d.)Transhumanismis a class of philosophies of life that seek the continuation and accelerationof the evolution of intelligent life beyond its currently human form and humanlimitations by means of science and technology, guided by life-promotingprinciples and values.

 (More, 1990)J.B.SHaldane writings and articles influenced academically and the people withsimilar reviews. It inspired J.

D. Bernal, a crystallographer at Cambridgeuniversity to write the book named as The World, the Flesh and the Devil in1929, in which he portrayed the concept of space colonization and fundamentaltransition of human bodies and their intellect through high tech bionic transplantsand cognitive intensify which led this idea to become popular. (Haridy, 2017)Ithas a lot of contradictions, debate and controversies with religion, politicsand ethical aspects of life with a belief that transhumanism can impact humanlives with the unfair intensification in many fields of life but particularly insocially, political and religious side. It can be contrast to the utilizationof steroid like athletes with the utilization of steroids in sports who havebody advancement as compared to those over those who do not use, same as whenpeople use specific brain implants to have better intellect to work better andin educating better. (Singh, 2017)Accordingto researcher everything has positive and negative aspects in life but itdepends on the usage of it, if technology is being used to help human becomebetter, effective, smart, less time consuming, overcoming obstacles, curingdiseases then it can make this world a better place for everyone.Diversityof opinions are circulating in transhumanists debate which is underlined by thefollowing categories includes democratic transhumanism, extropianism, immortalismincluding cryonics, libertarian transhumanism, postgenderism,singularitarianism,technogaianism. ( Sarwant Singh , 2017)2.3Human EvolutionHumanevolution is the process of evolution which headed to the creation and exposureof modern humans, it began with the evolution of primates from particular genusHomo to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a new hybrid of the hominid familywhich were the great apes.

This process led to the slow development of genetic traitsto personality developed traits such as human bipedalism which is locomotionwhere an organism walks on 2 limbs and language etc. It all brought by theDarwin’s theory of natural selection developed by Charles Darwin who wasEnglish naturalist ,the theory was biological evolution stated as all hybridsof organisms developed through the natural selection of  inherited contrasts that elevates theindividual’s potential to challenge with competition, survive and reproduce inthe living environment. (Hall, 2011) 2.4Origin of TechnologyTechnologyevolved with the invention of basic tools for survival and with time astechniques and methods got better technology got advanced.

Thetechnology is considered to be the methods which vary from simple language andtools of stones to the complex and advanced study of information technology andbiotechnology that has appeared since the 1980s. The term  technology evolved from the Greek word ‘techne’which means art and craft and the word logos means word and speech which usedto describe applied arts but now it is used to describe the advance change thatinfluence the environment around all of us. Advanced knowledge has allowed peopleto innovate and create. Scientific technologies have made possible traveling toplaces which humans could not reach back in time. Technology is basicallyapplied science as technical history is linked to the history of science. As technologyuses daily life resources that is why the technical history is linked stronglyto history of economics. Technology produces other resources from previousresources, like technology of aircrafts etc.

 (Buchanan, 2018) 2.5Technology in scienceScienceand technology is a subject that surrounds science and technology and the linkbetween them. Science is an organized way to build and gather knowledge in theform of theories, hypothesis, explanations and predictions about future of thenature and the universe. Technology is basically the group of methods andtechniques or processes which are used in the innovation of goods or servicesor to accomplish the objectives like scientific examination. (Understanding science, n.

d.) 2.6Technology in artThroughouthistory technology has become basic and important tool for an artist to expresstheir art. Today these two different fields of life interlinked more than everwith technology which is a fundamental impact in the development, innovationand revolution of art. Scientists, software developers, inventors,entrepreneurs, musicians, visual artists, film makers, fashion designers, gamedevelopers, all are taking advantage of advancements of technology andinnovating something new every day. Art has become less static with just 2D butmore movement, taking up to the next level of innovation with 3D, 4D art fromprinting digitally to 3D printing and much more.

(Souppouris, 2014)2.7Technology in architectureArchitecturaltechnology or building technology of building is the implementation oftechnology to design buildings. Technology plays important part in architectureand building engineering so it is viewed as sub-category. Since the 19thcentury, the era of industrialization new technology brought new designchallenges and new construction techniques in the evolution of technology.

Architectural technology is interlinked with the building science advances withmain objective of constant innovation. (Peters, 2013) 2.8Merging technology and human bodyThefuture of technology will going to bring a huge amount of body augmentationcapabilities that will make humans smarter, advanced, physically and mentallystronger with the ability to become post human, a better version of human. Wewill be seeing expanding utilization of neural implants from brain microchipsto have better intellect ,long term memory which will enable us to control theminds with prosthesis and subdermal RFID chips that will allow humans to doeven simple tasks with more secure way like unlocking doors or typing passwordin mind for transaction but the most influential and over taking aspect of bodyaugmentation will evolve from the biological augmentation with the ability ofadvancement in our genomes. From wearables technology to IVFtechnology that will be able to allow us in future to select the mostintellectual embryos with CRISPR gene-editing technology which may allow us toovercome all human heritable diseases and human circumstances one day. ( Sarwant Singh , 2017)  2.9Technology in fashionTheworld of fashion is depended on technology in order to innovate and create newdesigns.

Even though technology preoccupied fashion like Apple, Samsung, andGoogle, pixel all of these best and biggest companies in tech are pushingboundaries to sculpt their own destination into the fashion space since oldtimes. With Apple’s smartwatches, Google’s weaved fabrics with conducivethreads implanted in a smart jackets produced by Levi’s sponsored by Goggle,blend of fashion and technology has become more of costumer demand as well asladder to innovate as it is shaping the future of fashion. Famous Fashiondesigners like Karl Lagerfeld who has been creative director of Chanel for manyyears experimented with 3D-printed pieces like Iris Van Harpen and developedconcept of runway about space age with a rocket launch. Not just him but somany designers have been designing collections inspired by technology and alsospace age for years like previously Zac Posen collaborated with IBM’s Watsonsupercomputer to design an innovative dress which lights up and alter colorswhen some activity goes on social media.

 (Alvarez, 2017)Theresearcher began from evolution of technology in order to understand the importanceand history of emergence of technology in fashion design with led researcher totook further inspiration from space age which was peak of revolution oftechnology as the first artificial satellite was launched into the space withthe cross reference of one of the most famous film by Stanley Kubrick of 1960’snamed as 2001: a space odyssey. 1960s had diverse trends as it was an era thatleft variety of fashion traditions behind which showed social movements arisingthat time as space age began designer started to experiment more inspired bytechnology and space.  2.9.1 Collections inspired bytechnology in women ‘swear2.

9.1.1 Pierre CardinPierreCardin was the famous is an Italian-born French fashion designer who was bornin 2 July 1922. He is known with his most popular Space Age designs withavant-garde style.

He preferred always geometric shapes with bold huge shapedmotifs often ignored the female body form. He brought advanced unisex fashionbut sometimes his work was experimental, not always practical according to hisconcepts. In 1950 he founded his own fashion house and introduced the”bubble dress” in 1954. He was the first one to wear Neil Armstrongspace suit as he was too much interested and involved in the construction ofspace suits and space revolution as he started to design clothes inspired byspace.

Inboth 1977 and 1979 he was awarded for most creative and innovative collectionof the season by Cartier Golden Thimble, French haute couture. Cardinwas the first to merge the “mini” and “maxi” skirt of the 1970s to create newlook. He initiated a new way to form hemline that had long pom-pom panels orfringe that moved as the body moved. (biography, 2018)Hiswork was more of experiment and art to express the funky style of space age ina fun way with bold statements and primary colors but lacked the importantelements of technology which he could use in the form experimented textilesurface or microchips embedded in his garments to innovate something new.   2.9.1.

2 Nina Ricci NinaRicci was famous designer born in 1883, owned fashion house which was foundedby Maria “Nina” Ricci and her son Robert in Paris in 1932 which laterowned by the a Spanish beauty and fashion group named as Puig since 1998. NinaRicci launched her haute couture house in 1932. She always worked with thefabrics directly on the mannequin to make sure they had its shape once they aredone. Her designs soon became very popular known for the refined, bold shapessilhouettes which gave a space inspired look with some romantic feminine colorswhich added a twist to all of her collections. (McDowell, 2016)Herstyle of work showed clean cuts and refined bold shapes with minimal forms butshe lacked textiles in her collections which she could use including the key componentsof technology.

2.9.1.3 Issey MiyakeIsseyMiyake was born in 22 April 1938 who is a Japanese fashion designer with hiswell-known driven for technology inspired clothing designs, exhibitions andfragrances like L’eau d’Issey, which became his most popular product. Hedesigned both men’s and women’swear collections. Miyake used different newtechnique of pleating in 1993. He experimented with new techniques of pleatingthat would allow the space around the wearer and flexibility for movement.

Inthis method first garments are cut and sewn then they are sandwiched betweenlayers of paper, fed and taken into a heat press, where pleated are formed. Thefabric’s ‘memory’ holds the pleats and when the garments are extracted from theheat press, stiffen pleats are formed. He was also friended with Steve jobs anddesigned turtle necks for him.

 (Kawamura, n.d.)Accordingto researcher he invented new techniques of pleating and unlike other designerdid not just focus on silhouette but also on developing innovative textiles buthe could be experimenting and push boundaries with usage of micro-controllersin his collections as he is known as technology driven designer. 2.

9.2 Contrast to designer’s workTheresearch on different designer’s work led researcher to evaluate the comparisonbetween their work and researcher’s work and extract the result based on theconcept and taken inspiration as famous designers like Pierre Cardin, Nina Ricci,Issey Miyake and many more of space age used colorful, innovative, bold cutlinesbut lacked elements of technology which could play major role in their collectionsand led to innovate with breakthrough with more experimentation. However,researcher experimented with textiles surfaces as well as cutlines and addedelements of technology embedded in garments which would be able to fill the gapespecially nationally as no work has been done in Pakistan usingmicro-controllers which can sense temperature and humidity of environment andtell through the app with the aspects of forecast trends of color blocking.  2.10Summary of the ChapterThischapter consisted of organized background of taken inspiration and how previouswork has been done by various fashion designers inspired by technology with theresearcher’s personal critique to identify the differences and gap between otherdesigners and researcher’s work with key concept of taken inspiration, furthermorebrought more narrowed and focused to evaluate the overall work.

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