This section
provides different theoretical assumptions based on several cited references
that serve as the basic fundamental basis on developing this study.

            One major issue that students are
currently facing and experiencing is little or no improvement with Manila’s
traffic congestion and location of their school from their home that leads them
to encounter a shortage from transport cost. Despite the government’s attempts
to rehabilitate the traffic system and fare hike, proposed projects are still
failing to effectively decongest the traffic. Several references cited properly
will be the structure throughout developing the study.

            Location theory Feinberg (2005)
explained the location theory that established by Johann Heinrich Von Thunen
(1783- 1850). It is a theory based on balancing land costs and transport costs
of those people located in cities and farms. Its sole purpose is to ensure that
perishable products will reach the market place timely and at a lower transport
cost. Schools in cities are designed so that students can quickly access
transport to avoid poor attendance caused by transport problems as well as
cost. According to Weber’s theory of industrial location, the total
transportation costs will be lower when production site located near the
market. He tried to determine the total costs of transporting raw material from
both sites to the production site and product from the production site to the
market. The production site (school), therefore, will be located near the raw
material (students) sources for a least transport cost (Encyclopedia
Britannica, 2014). Nayati (2008) on locating school bus routes contended that
all human beings have a natural tendency of selecting the shortest or the
fastest path to go from one place to another. Similarly, transporters as well
as travelers both prefer short and faster routes to cut operating cost and
transportation expenses respectively. Sunday and Olatunde (2011) in Ekiti State
in Nigeria, applied location theory to examine relationship between population
density and distribution of secondary schools by Local Government Area; they
found that there were imbalances in the distribution of education facilities.
So the theory can help to balance population and social services. Some students
in cities want to consume education but transport problems including
transportation cost affect where education produced as the result; education
becomes expensive commodity for the mass to get it. Poor transport may
accelerate lowly student attendance and absenteeism which are the first signs
of worsening of school and the quality of its education. Thus, it is crucial to
the government to do all it can to promote good school attendance habits among
its students. Appropriate transport for students to and from schools should be
essential precondition for the effective educational system. Through regular
school attendance and punctuality students can progress academically hence to
lead quality education. These geographical theories will adequately inform this


Moreover, a model
proposed in 1984 by Lazarus and Folkman entitled “Theory of Cognitive
Appraisal” explained that the mental process which influence of the
stressors. Lazarus stated that cognitive appraisal has two major factors when
responding to a stress and under this two major factor is the primary
Appraisal. This Primary appraisal is to categorize whether the stressor or the
situation (like traffic) is a threat or a challenge. This factor states that
when a person see the stressor (traffic) as a threat, the person will view it
as something that will cause future harm, such as failure in exams or getting
fired from job but when people look at it as a challenge, this person will
cultivate a positive stress response because the person will expect the
stressor to lead you to a higher class ranking, or a better employment.