Thisis a rod shaped bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans. There arearound 2500 species of salmonella, some being more dangerous than other.

Salmonella causes diarrhoea.How do theytransmit?It is passed from the feces of animals or people to otheranimals or people. It lives in the intestine of animals but can also be foundin contaminated meat (especially chicken), raw eggs or other contaminated rawfood including vegetables and fruit.How they grow?It grows by division cells and can reproduce rapidly ifthe conditions are ideal. Salmonella request warm and wet conditions. How fastit reproduces is deponent upon the strain.

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Some stains have be seen to divedwithin 20mm.Impact ofenvironmental conditions Salmonellaneed the correct condition to grow. It needs warmth a food sources and moistureto divide but will be killed by cooking.

On ingestion it can take about 12 to72 hrs for symptoms to be show.What are the effectson the health of animals?Afteringesting salmonella the effects are nausea and vomiting followed by abdominalpain and diarrhoea how sever the symptom are depends on health, age, how muchbacteria was ingested and the type of the salmonella and can take for 1 to 4days.  CampylobacterThisis a shaped, gram-negative bacteria that is most common cause of food poisoning.How do theytransmit?Campylobacter is found in raw meat and especially chickenor other poultry. It can be found in unpasteurised milk or untreated waterwhich can includes ice cubes. Pets and other animals which have campylobactercan pass on the bacteria to their handlers.How they grow?It reproduces by cell division  and can reproduces very rapidly if it has water,food and warmth. Impact ofenvironmental conditions In ideal condition one bacteria can multiply to 70million in 12 hrs.

it needs to be warm and wet with suitable food source but ifheated to about 700C for more than 2 mins the bacteria will bekilled.What are the effectson the health of animals?Campylobacter can cause illness in animals but mostly ithas no effect on them. In humans it can produce nausea vomiting, abdominalpains and diarrhoea. Usually it takes between 1 to 4 day for effect to be felt.     FungiRingwormThis is a skin disease of man and animal and highlycontagious. It can be cause by various fungi of the genera Microsporon,Tirchoplytion and epidermophyton. It is common in cow, horses, dogs, cats, pigand sheep.

The spores of the fungi can live for long periods in the soil.How do theytransmit?Humansand animals can be infected with the virus sporedby contact with soil. The infection can spread also through contact with infectedanimals or humans.How they grow?Onceestablished it spreads by cell division outwards in rings.

The enter of thering may clean up but other new ring may from the edge of the ring.Reproduction can be from production of spores which can remain viable in food,bedding and soil for more than 18 months.The impact ofdifferent environmental conditions on their growth and reproductionThe fungi that cause ring worm like to live in warm, dampareas.

The skin of animals is animals is an ideal place, especially where theirid moisture ie feet. The fungi live on keratin in the outer layer of the skin.What are theeffects on the health of animals?Ringwormdoes not have major health threat but can cause irritation to the skin and inextreme cause the skin can split allowing other fungi, bacteria, viruses orparasites to enter the animal through the wound.   Aspergillosis Thisis a type of fungi known as mould. Breathing in the mould spores can causeraspatory problems in both human and animals such as birds, dogs, cats andhorse etc.

There are about 200 different spores of this fungi, 16 of which cancause problems.  How do theytransmit?Themould spread throughout the wonld and commonly occurs in both the outdoors andindoor environment. The spores are very tiny and can be carried in the air.Breathing in the spores often has no effect but if an animals immune system iffaulty or becomes stressed the fungi can start to multiply in the respiratorysystem and in some animals such as horses affect other organs such as the liveror kidney.  How they grow?Thefungi can grow on a wide range of materials that they can use as a food source.They are often found on walls and leather in damp food. They produce sporesthat spread through the air and they grow by cell division once on a suitable surface.

  The impact of differentenvironmental conditions on their growth and reproductionThe fungi like warm damp places to live although somespecies have a wide range temperature tolerance. They are found in damp house,air conditioning units, compost heaps, soils and leaf mould and can grow rapidlyin these environments. The spores they produce are spread by air.What are theeffects on the health of animals? when the mould spores are breathed in they can growin respiratory system and cause problems in breathing and irritation. This canlead to infection in the nose, throat and lungs. If the fungi gets into other organsitcan often be fatal because it is difficult to treat since it is not affected bymany drugs.

    VirusesParvovirus This is the common name given to a range of viruses thatcan affect vertebrate, invertebrates. Canine Parvovirus is very dangerous topuppies and has about 80% fatality. The parvovirus are extremely small.

How do theytransmit?Thevirus is very contagious and is carried in the feaes of infected animal and canremain viable outside the body in areas such as grass lands for up to 6 months.The virus grows cells of the intestine and is often fatal. How they grow?Thevirus needs healthy cells that it can enter and charge the cells operationcausing it to manufachires more viruses. The impact ofdifferent environmental conditions on their growth and reproductionIfthat virus finds that correct type of cell in an animal body it will have theideal conditions to starts multiplying by using that cell as a factory. Thatvirus pathway to replicating that virus. In canine parvovirus the swamps thatcells of the intestine so that the animal cannot absorb vital nutrients andfluids.What are theeffects on the health of animals?Parvoviruscan be fatal in young or un-vaccinated animals. It is important that puppiesare vaccinated against the virus at a young age and that booster are followedup.

   Rotavirus  This virus is one of the most common causes ofdiarrhoea in both children and young animals. The round shape of the virus iswhere it gets its name. There are a number of subspecies labelled A to G.subspecies A is most active in young children and animals such as dog, cats andcow ect. Subspecies B has been found in adult humans.

How do theytransmit?The virus can be carried in the air or live in pastureland for many months. If ingested it attacks cells on the intestine lungs. Asmore viruses are produced these can leave the animals in its feces to bepicked up by other animals.How they grow?Thevirus attaches its self to a cell on the intestine lung and cause that cell toreproduce more viruses. The cell is eventually destroyed and the virusesproduced reinfect other cells.The impact ofdifferent environmental conditions on their growth and reproductionThis is similar to the parvovirus. The cell that acts asthe host needs to be that correct type for that particular virus. Fiftiesattack by an irotovirus antibodies may be produced by the immuine system whichwill prevents further attacks.

What are theeffects on the health of animals?Thevirus will cause that animal to become weak and dehydrated due to thediarrhoea.   


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