There are four kinds of routines advised by the author:-I-R
Reinforcements, guessing games, I-R Probes and Dismissals. These activities are
important for the time management and engagement of the students in the
classroom. Teachers are often concerned with
the completion of the daily agenda and therefore they cannot allow or permit
much engagement in the classroom to avoid distraction. The reformers must
consider the content to be covered in the academic year and “active
The chapter 5, “Constructing the Day’s Agenda” discusses three
kinds of teaching practices: designing learning outcomes, presentation of the
content and designing activities to achieve the objectives of the lesson plan.
The teacher has to achieve the learning outcomes that are part of the daily
agenda of the classroom but involving students in the activities can make the teacher’s
job difficult. No matter how hard the teacher tries but she /he cannot ensure
the learning and intellectual engagement of all the students. The variety of
activities distract the students from the content and it becomes difficult for the
teacher to bring them back to the track.
Chapter 6, “Sources of Problems in teaching”, the author has
summarized the problems faced by the teachers and the perspective of reformers.
The teachers had a different paradigm of looking on to the issues of the
classroom. The teachers were more concerned about the universal participation
of the students rather than universal intellectual engagement of the students.
They were taking into account the issues of the classroom that were somehow
ignored by the uniform ideals. The reformers’ criticism is then discussed under
“Important ideas are suppressed”i.e the statements used by the teachers
were often misleading which led to confusion about the activities, the content
was not portrayed in the right way. “In a very small number of cases, the
entire lesson appeared to be seriously disorganized and confusing.”(pg. 162).”
“Intellectual engagement is suppressed”, i.e. the ideas of the
students and their definition of the particular concept is not often valued by
the teacher and the teacher wants all the student to perceive the idea as he as
The chapter argues that there is a huge difference in the beliefs and
images of the teachers and the reformers. The areas teachers are concerned
about and the areas of utmost importance to the reformers show that their
lenses are different.
“Sources of improvements in Teaching”, chapter 7 discusses the
factors that can stimulate the teachers to change their teaching practices.
Teachers get motivated by the new idea but they only practice the idea in their
teaching if it is consistent with their images beliefs and values. If the
reforms ideals ideas do not match the teacher’s belief they are more unlikely
to implement the ideas in their daily teaching practices. The author didn’t
find any evidence in her studies where beliefs and values can be modified but
knowledge can serve as a stimulus to modify their beliefs. Three broad
categories have been identified by the author which can be the source of new
ideas for the teachers:-“informal, institutional and knowledge-vending
sources” that can create dissonance in the teachers to modify their beliefs
and values. The reformers should therefore provide professional development at
the institutional level for the up gradation of the ideas and modification of
their beliefs to make them flexible enough to adopt new ideas in their teaching
practices that are being studied by the researchers.
Chapter 8, “The problem of Reform” summarizes the whole study and
recommends that there is a difference in the beliefs of the reform ideals and
the teachers so the reformers must also take into account teachers concerns in
order to implement the reform ideals and align these reform ideals with the
images and beliefs of the teachers. The reform ideals also need to provide
professional development to the teachers to effectively implement the new ideas
in their teaching practices.
I found the book very interesting and informative as it’s an ongoing
debate that the teachers are not able to implement what reform ideals suggests.
The book provides reformers to consider the areas of concerns for the teachers
and provide tem professional development to at least get motivated and know
about the latest strategies. Introduction to new knowledge would create
dissonance and the teacher would gradually be motivated to implement it in
their classroom practices. Whereas it
also provides a ground for the teachers to understand and implement new
strategies. The book also serves policy makers to device policies in such a way
that teachers can be the lifelong learners.