The most important issue of today’s time which isresponsible for various environmental issues in the world, GLOBAL WARMING whichis mainly due to various climate changes and human activities in the nation.These refer to increase in the total temperature of the earth affecting theearth gradually .Many human activities also contribute in increasing thetemperature of the world. Global warming is mainly caused by greenhouse gaseswhich inturn increase the average temperature of the earth surface thus leadingto sudden melting of polar glaciers thus this condition worsens when thetemperature exceeds a certain limit. The gases comprising greenhouses gases aremainly methane, carbon dioxide, CFC’s etc. The pinciple of greenhouse is thatthe enclosing gases allow the passage of incoming sunlight  but trap a portion of the green house abovethe outside temperature.

Global warming and climate change threaten theexistence of humans as these have very negative affects on the health of humansHowever, the climate change due to excessive emissions from industries dependsmainly on the extent of man-made greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The major source ofgreenhouse gases is fuel burning  that iswhen various fossil fuels are burnt in the atmosphere then a lot of gases areintroduced in the atmosphere which in turn harm the earths atmosphere whichfurther leads to various health problems and decline in the length of the ozonelayer. The usage of various vehicles for the means of transportation also leadsto the emission of gases from the fuel engines which also releases these gasewhich harm the environmet further increasing the earths temperature. For morethan 2.5 million years the earths temperature has fluctuated very badly cyclingfrom ice ages to warmer periods but in the very last century the planetstemperature has risen unusually fast about 1.2 ro 1.4 degrees farhenheit.  Scientists highly believe it’s the humanactivity that’s diving the temperatures up .

Ever since the industrialrevolution began factories power plants and eventually cars have burned fossilfuels such as oil releasing huge amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases intothe earths atmosphere these gases trap the heat near the earth through anaturally occuring process called the geenhouse effect, the greenhouse effectbegins with the sun and the energy it radiates to the earth , the earth and theatmposphere absorb some of this energy while the rest is radiated back intospace naturally occuing gases in the atmosphere trap some of this energy andreflected back waming the earth. Scientists now believe that the greenhouseeffect  is being intensified  by the extra greenhouse gases that humanshave released . Various evidence of global warming includes a recent string ofvery warm years scientists report that 1998 was the warmest year in measuredhistory with 2005 coming in second meanwhile readings taken from ice cores andpolar regions show that the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide methane have hittheir highest levels in the past years. Arctic sea ice is also shrinking.According to various studies the extent of arctic sea ice has declined aboutten percent in the last thirty years as long as industrialized nations consumeenergy and developing countries increase their fossil fuel consumption theconcentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will continue to rise,researches predict  that thetemperatures will increase about two to ten degrees farenheit by the end of thesubtle changes others forecast rising sea levels which could flood coastalareas around the world weather patters could change making hurricances morefrequent severe could also become more common in more areas and species unableto adapt to the changing conditions would not be able to survive this suddenincrease in temperature and thus would automatically dioe and then would faceextinction . Similarly human consumption and over population are driving up thearths temperature and fundamentally changing the world around us the moregreenhouse gases they produce the more heat is trapped stengthening thegreenhouse effect and further leading yo high temperature in the world. Therapid increase in the greenhouse gases has warmed the planet at an alarmingrate.

Climate change has consequences for our oceans , our weather , our foodsources. Many ice sheets like greenland and antarctica are melting the extrawater that was once held in glaciers causes sea levels to rise and spills outof the oceans flooding coastal regions warmer weather temperature also makeweather more extreme this means not only ,more intense major storms , floodsand heavy snowfall but also longer and more frequent droughts these changes inweather cause challenges such as the vegetation is highly affected the maingrowing of crops and cereals become highly dificult which in turn also effectsare food habits and further hinders our survival on the planet earth also  the regions where the plants are grown alsohinders the suvival of animals of that side the areas where these plantsAnimals can live shift thus causing them trouble for their survival there palceof living is also shifted and thei living is also compromised. Their foodresources and water supplies are diminished thus creation of new agriculturalchallenges it would  become moredifficult and thus leading to their extinction from that place and climatechange can directly affect peoples physical health . In urban areas the warmeratmosphere  creates environment thattraps and increases the amount of smog this is because smog contains ozoneparticles which increase rapidly at higher temperatues exposure to higherlevels of smog is very dangerous. Smog is defined as the condition in which thesmoke released from the fossil fules or the industries gets mixed with theclimates fog which futher results in decreased visibilty on the roads which canfurther cause vaious accidents and delays in various flights and trains in theurbanm areas. It is also very hamful for both humans and animals as inhalingthem causes them very serious health and as a result of that many human livesare affected by this phenomenon problems such as aasthma, heart diseases andlung cancer thus leading to decline in the health ratio of the earth. Climatechange is a real and serious issue , climate changes are mainly due to abruptincrease in the earths temperatue , ten out of the last thirteen years werewarmest on record . The most advese which is caused due to this is the meltingof the polar areas  as a result theearths sea level is inceasing , the oceans already rose six cm during thecourse of nineteenth century but they rose by ninteen cm during the twenthiethcentuy which is over three times faster than they rose in the previous century.

Scientists due believe that the sea level could increase upto three metres by the year 2100 which wouldhavedevastating consequences . If this happens entire islands countries would notbe able to survive such as various island countries like the maldives, marshallislands, kiribati, tuvalu will be totally submerged beneath ocean and thustheir existence would  cease to exist.Thus  the people would not be able tosurvive and thus for the saving of the people living there the entie would haveto be transplanted to somwhere else and  this willlead to a situation in which hundreds of thousands of state-less people wouldhave to find a new home ,  one hundredfifty total climate refugees from around the world may exist by twenty fiftyand by 2100 that number could rise to 2 billion people which is equal to theeighteen pecent of the global population at that time , but in an even worsecase scenario than this , if all the ice on the antartica greenland and theworld glaciers melted in to the ocean it would then rise the global sea levelby an incredible length, such a catastrophe would take five thousand years of thecurrent rate of the ice melting to happen , but it would severely alter thegeography the planet, most of the cities would be underwater and hence lifewould not be possible on these islands. Such as in noth America Vancouver,seattle and Portland and most of san diego los angeles would be underwater. SanFrancisco would be an island , the san Francisco bay would greatly expand insize . the gulf of California would expand so far north , that palm springswould become a costal city while on the atlantic coast , the ocean would expandto swallow the cities of Houston, new oleans, the entire state of florida andcities of new yok Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington dc and boston , South Americacontinent and thecities of Buenos aires , Montevideo and rio de janerio all wouldbe underwater. Europe would be one of the devasted areas in the world.

The entirecountry of Netherlands would be underwater and so would all of Denmark  and half of Belgium. The british isles willbecome more of an archipelago and London would be  totally beneath sea and northen germany wouldalso be entirely underwater including the city of berlin, venice. Istanbul wouldalso be underwater.

the blacksea and the Caspian sea would be converting intoone which would mean Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan would no longer belandlocked countries, Africa would be the least severly affected continent but Egyptwould be severely damaged, Australia would be a new inland sea. Thus Reducing humanitysusage of fossil fuels is probably the best way mitigating and warning climate. Thereare a lot of countries that use a lot of fossil fuels and hence these are linedamong the top promoters and contributors in global warming and climate change. Thuswe can clearly how this is going to affect our living and wildlife. Thus protectionof our environment frm all this is bound to be done otherwise we have alreadyseen how it is going to affect. Thus we all need to prevent this disaster byadopting the following methods.

Whatwe can doThe goal is to bring global warmingunder control by curtailing the release of carbon dioxide and otherheat-trapping “greenhouse” gases into the atmosphere.We can contribute to this globalcause with personal actions. Our individual efforts are especially significantin countries like the US and Canada, where individuals release over 10,000pounds of carbon dioxide per person every year.We can help immediately by becomingmore energy efficient.

Reducing our use of oil, gasoline and coal also sets anexample for others to follow.Reduceelectricity usage around the homeThe largest source of greenhousegases is electric power generation. The average home actually contributes moreto global warming than the average car. This is because much of the energy weuse in our homes comes from power plants which burn fossil fuel to power ourelectric products.To reduce the amount of electricityused in our homes:Switch to energy-efficient lighting Replace the familiar incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs.

For each CFL bulb replacement, you’ll lower your energy bill and keep nearly 700 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the air over the bulb’s lifetime. CFL bulbs last much longer and use only a quarter of the energy consumed by conventional bulbs. LED bulbs are also energy-saving, but have a narrower range of application. Advances in LED bulb technology, however, are leading to more applications for these bulbs in the home.

LEDs are more efficient than CFLs and do not have issues surrounding disposal, as do the CFLs.Improve the efficiency of home appliances Home appliances vary greatly in terms of energy-efficiency and operating costs. The more energy-efficient an appliance is, the less it costs to run.

You can lower your utility bill and help protect the environment. Buy energy-efficient appliances when shopping for a new appliance Do this especially when shopping for a major appliance such as a refrigerator, dishwasher, or air-conditioner – select the one with the highest energy efficiency rating. By opting for a refrigerator with the Energy Star label — indicating it uses at least 15 percent less energy than the federal requirement — you can reduce carbon dioxide pollution by nearly a ton in total. Reduce energy needed for heating According to the U.S. Department of Energy, heating and cooling systems in the U.

S. emit over a half billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year. Much of the energy used for heating our homes is wasted, and yet the prevention is, in many cases, simple and inexpensive. Reduce energy needed for cooling Air conditioners alone use up to 1/6th of the electricity in the U.

S. and, on hot summer days, consume 43% of the U.S. peak power load. You can reduce much of the need for air conditioning, and enjoy a cost savings benefit, by using ‘passive’ techniques to help cool your home. Improvevehicle fuel-efficiencyThe second largest source ofgreenhouse gases is transportation. Motor vehicles are responsible for about athird of all carbon dioxide emissions in the U.S.

and Canada.Practice fuel-efficient driving Every gallon of gasoline burned puts 26 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. You can boost the overall fuel-efficiency of your car as much as 30% by simple vehicle maintenance and attention to your style of driving.Buy a fuel-efficient car Even more important is the choice of car or truck you buy. If you buy a new car that gets 10 more miles per gallon than your old car, the amount of carbon dioxide reduction realized in one year will be about 2,500 pounds. The new hybrid cars, using efficient gas-electric engines, can cut global warming pollution by 30 levels.Recycle air conditioner coolant If your car has an air conditioner, make sure you recycle its coolant whenever you have it serviced. You can save thousands of pounds of carbon dioxide each year by doing this.

Drive less You’ll save energy by taking the bus, riding a bike, or walking. Try consolidating trips to the mall or longer routine drives. Encourage car-pooling.Conserveenergy in the home and yardYard maintenance contributessignificantly to greenhouse emissions. Per hour of operation, a power lawnmower emits 10-12 times as much hydrocarbon as a typical auto.

A weedeateremits 21 times more and a leaf blower 34 times more.Reduce lawn size Lawn size can be reduced by adding shrubs, beds, ground covers and mulched areas. Try creating a lawn area small enough to be mowed using an efficient reel (push) mower.

Lawn edging can be set low enough to mow over, reducing or eliminating the need for a weed-eater. Recycle whenever possible Aluminum cans, newspapers, magazines, cardboard, glass – anything recycled reduces the energy needed to create new products. To find the recycling center nearest you, call: 1 800-CLEANUP. For ideas on home recycling, Eat locally produced food Today, the food choices available in supermarkets come from all over the world.

All of this ‘traffic’ in food requires staggering amounts of fuel – generally by refrigerated airplanes or transport trucks. Food transportation is one of the fastest growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Eat vegetarian meals Vegetarian food requires much less energy to produce. Enjoying vegetarian meals once or twice a week results in significant CO2 savings.

Paint your home a light color if you live in a warm climate, or a dark color in a cold climate. This can contribute saving up to 5000 pounds of carbon dioxide per year.Choose clean energy options If you can choose your electricity supplier, pick a company that generates at least half its power from wind, solar energy and other renewable sources.Buy clean energy certificates and carbon offsets Help spur the renewable energy market and cut global warming pollution with “wind certificates” or “green tags,” which represent clean power you can add to the nation’s energy grid in place of electricity from fossil fuel.A “carbon offset” is an emission reduction creditwhich can be purchased by individuals, businesses and governments to reducetheir net greenhouse gas emissions.Thusthese are needed to be taken in contact in order to prevent our earth fromdegrading.


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