The most important issue of today’s time which is
responsible for various environmental issues in the world, GLOBAL WARMING which
is mainly due to various climate changes and human activities in the nation.
These refer to increase in the total temperature of the earth affecting the
earth gradually .Many human activities also contribute in increasing the
temperature of the world. Global warming is mainly caused by greenhouse gases
which inturn increase the average temperature of the earth surface thus leading
to sudden melting of polar glaciers thus this condition worsens when the
temperature exceeds a certain limit. The gases comprising greenhouses gases are
mainly methane, carbon dioxide, CFC’s etc. The pinciple of greenhouse is that
the enclosing gases allow the passage of incoming sunlight  but trap a portion of the green house above
the outside temperature. Global warming and climate change threaten the
existence of humans as these have very negative affects on the health of humans
However, the climate change due to excessive emissions from industries depends
mainly on the extent of man-made 
greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The major source of
greenhouse gases is fuel burning  that is
when various fossil fuels are burnt in the atmosphere then a lot of gases are
introduced in the atmosphere which in turn harm the earths atmosphere which
further leads to various health problems and decline in the length of the ozone
layer. The usage of various vehicles for the means of transportation also leads
to the emission of gases from the fuel engines which also releases these gase
which harm the environmet further increasing the earths temperature. For more
than 2.5 million years the earths temperature has fluctuated very badly cycling
from ice ages to warmer periods but in the very last century the planets
temperature has risen unusually fast about 1.2 ro 1.4 degrees farhenheit.  Scientists highly believe it’s the human
activity that’s diving the temperatures up .Ever since the industrial
revolution began factories power plants and eventually cars have burned fossil
fuels such as oil releasing huge amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases into
the earths atmosphere these gases trap the heat near the earth through a
naturally occuring process called the geenhouse effect, the greenhouse effect
begins with the sun and the energy it radiates to the earth , the earth and the
atmposphere absorb some of this energy while the rest is radiated back into
space naturally occuing gases in the atmosphere trap some of this energy and
reflected back waming the earth. Scientists now believe that the greenhouse
effect  is being intensified  by the extra greenhouse gases that humans
have released . Various evidence of global warming includes a recent string of
very warm years scientists report that 1998 was the warmest year in measured
history with 2005 coming in second meanwhile readings taken from ice cores and
polar regions show that the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide methane have hit
their highest levels in the past years. Arctic sea ice is also shrinking.
According to various studies the extent of arctic sea ice has declined about
ten percent in the last thirty years as long as industrialized nations consume
energy and developing countries increase their fossil fuel consumption the
concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will continue to rise
,researches predict  that the
temperatures will increase about two to ten degrees farenheit by the end of the
subtle changes others forecast rising sea levels which could flood coastal
areas around the world weather patters could change making hurricances more
frequent severe could also become more common in more areas and species unable
to adapt to the changing conditions would not be able to survive this sudden
increase in temperature and thus would automatically dioe and then would face
extinction . Similarly human consumption and over population are driving up the
arths temperature and fundamentally changing the world around us the more
greenhouse gases they produce the more heat is trapped stengthening the
greenhouse effect and further leading yo high temperature in the world. The
rapid increase in the greenhouse gases has warmed the planet at an alarming
rate. Climate change has consequences for our oceans , our weather , our food
sources. Many ice sheets like greenland and antarctica are melting the extra
water that was once held in glaciers causes sea levels to rise and spills out
of the oceans flooding coastal regions warmer weather temperature also make
weather more extreme this means not only ,more intense major storms , floods
and heavy snowfall but also longer and more frequent droughts these changes in
weather cause challenges such as the vegetation is highly affected the main
growing of crops and cereals become highly dificult which in turn also effects
are food habits and further hinders our survival on the planet earth also  the regions where the plants are grown also
hinders the suvival of animals of that side the areas where these plants
Animals can live shift thus causing them trouble for their survival there palce
of living is also shifted and thei living is also compromised. Their food
resources and water supplies are diminished thus creation of new agricultural
challenges it would  become more
difficult and thus leading to their extinction from that place and climate
change can directly affect peoples physical health . In urban areas the warmer
atmosphere  creates environment that
traps and increases the amount of smog this is because smog contains ozone
particles which increase rapidly at higher temperatues exposure to higher
levels of smog is very dangerous. Smog is defined as the condition in which the
smoke released from the fossil fules or the industries gets mixed with the
climates fog which futher results in decreased visibilty on the roads which can
further cause vaious accidents and delays in various flights and trains in the
urbanm areas. It is also very hamful for both humans and animals as inhaling
them causes them very serious health and as a result of that many human lives
are affected by this phenomenon problems such as aasthma, heart diseases and
lung cancer thus leading to decline in the health ratio of the earth. Climate
change is a real and serious issue , climate changes are mainly due to abrupt
increase in the earths temperatue , ten out of the last thirteen years were
warmest on record . The most advese which is caused due to this is the melting
of the polar areas  as a result the
earths sea level is inceasing , the oceans already rose six cm during the
course of nineteenth century but they rose by ninteen cm during the twenthieth
centuy which is over three times faster than they rose in the previous century
. Scientists due believe that the sea level 
could increase upto three metres by the year 2100 which wouldhave
devastating consequences . If this happens entire islands countries would not
be able to survive such as various island countries like the maldives, marshall
islands, kiribati, tuvalu will be totally submerged beneath ocean and thus
their existence would  cease to exist.
Thus  the people would not be able to
survive and thus for the saving of the people living there the entie would have
to be transplanted to somwhere else and


 this will
lead to a situation in which hundreds of thousands of state-less people would
have to find a new home ,  one hundred
fifty total climate refugees from around the world may exist by twenty fifty
and by 2100 that number could rise to 2 billion people which is equal to the
eighteen pecent of the global population at that time , but in an even worse
case scenario than this , if all the ice on the antartica greenland and the
world glaciers melted in to the ocean it would then rise the global sea level
by an incredible length, such a catastrophe would take five thousand years of the
current rate of the ice melting to happen , but it would severely alter the
geography the planet, most of the cities would be underwater and hence life
would not be possible on these islands. Such as in noth America Vancouver,
seattle and Portland and most of san diego los angeles would be underwater. San
Francisco would be an island , the san Francisco bay would greatly expand in
size . the gulf of California would expand so far north , that palm springs
would become a costal city while on the atlantic coast , the ocean would expand
to swallow the cities of Houston, new oleans, the entire state of florida and
cities of new yok Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington dc and boston , South America
continent and thecities of Buenos aires , Montevideo and rio de janerio all would
be underwater. Europe would be one of the devasted areas in the world. The entire
country of Netherlands would be underwater and so would all of Denmark  and half of Belgium. The british isles will
become more of an archipelago and London would be  totally beneath sea and northen germany would
also be entirely underwater including the city of berlin, venice. Istanbul would
also be underwater. the blacksea and the Caspian sea would be converting into
one which would mean Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan would no longer be
landlocked countries, Africa would be the least severly affected continent but Egypt
would be severely damaged, Australia would be a new inland sea. Thus Reducing humanitys
usage of fossil fuels is probably the best way mitigating and warning climate. There
are a lot of countries that use a lot of fossil fuels and hence these are lined
among the top promoters and contributors in global warming and climate change. Thus
we can clearly how this is going to affect our living and wildlife. Thus protection
of our environment frm all this is bound to be done otherwise we have already
seen how it is going to affect. Thus we all need to prevent this disaster by
adopting the following methods.

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we can do

The goal is to bring global warming
under control by curtailing the release of carbon dioxide and other
heat-trapping “greenhouse” gases into the atmosphere.

We can contribute to this global
cause with personal actions. Our individual efforts are especially significant
in countries like the US and Canada, where individuals release over 10,000
pounds of carbon dioxide per person every year.

We can help immediately by becoming
more energy efficient. Reducing our use of oil, gasoline and coal also sets an
example for others to follow.

electricity usage around the home

The largest source of greenhouse
gases is electric power generation. The average home actually contributes more
to global warming than the average car. This is because much of the energy we
use in our homes comes from power plants which burn fossil fuel to power our
electric products.

To reduce the amount of electricity
used in our homes:

Switch to energy-efficient lighting
Replace the familiar incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent
bulbs. For each CFL bulb replacement, you’ll lower your energy bill and
keep nearly 700 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the air over the bulb’s
lifetime. CFL bulbs last much longer and use only a quarter of the energy
consumed by conventional bulbs. LED bulbs are also energy-saving, but have
a narrower range of application. Advances in LED bulb technology, however,
are leading to more applications for these bulbs in the home. LEDs are more
efficient than CFLs and do not have issues surrounding disposal, as do the
CFLs.Improve the efficiency of home appliances
Home appliances vary greatly in terms of energy-efficiency and operating
costs. The more energy-efficient an appliance is, the less it costs to
run. You can lower your utility bill and help protect the environment. Buy energy-efficient appliances when shopping for a new
Do this especially when shopping for a major appliance such as a
refrigerator, dishwasher, or air-conditioner – select the one with the
highest energy efficiency rating. By opting for a refrigerator with the
Energy Star label — indicating it uses at least 15 percent less energy
than the federal requirement — you can reduce carbon dioxide pollution by
nearly a ton in total. Reduce energy needed for heating
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, heating and cooling systems in
the U.S. emit over a half billion tons of carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere each year. Much of the energy used for heating our homes is
wasted, and yet the prevention is, in many cases, simple and inexpensive. Reduce energy needed for cooling
Air conditioners alone use up to 1/6th of the electricity in the U.S. and,
on hot summer days, consume 43% of the U.S. peak power load. You can
reduce much of the need for air conditioning, and enjoy a cost savings
benefit, by using ‘passive’ techniques to help cool your home.

vehicle fuel-efficiency

The second largest source of
greenhouse gases is transportation. Motor vehicles are responsible for about a
third of all carbon dioxide emissions in the U.S. and Canada.

Practice fuel-efficient driving
Every gallon of gasoline burned puts 26 pounds of carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere. You can boost the overall fuel-efficiency of your car as much
as 30% by simple vehicle maintenance and attention to your style of driving.Buy a fuel-efficient car
Even more important is the choice of car or truck you buy. If you buy a
new car that gets 10 more miles per gallon than your old car, the amount
of carbon dioxide reduction realized in one year will be about 2,500
pounds. The new hybrid cars, using efficient gas-electric engines, can cut
global warming pollution by 30 levels.Recycle air conditioner coolant
If your car has an air conditioner, make sure you recycle its coolant
whenever you have it serviced. You can save thousands of pounds of carbon
dioxide each year by doing this.Drive less
You’ll save energy by taking the bus, riding a bike, or walking. Try
consolidating trips to the mall or longer routine drives. Encourage

energy in the home and yard

Yard maintenance contributes
significantly to greenhouse emissions. Per hour of operation, a power lawn
mower emits 10-12 times as much hydrocarbon as a typical auto. A weedeater
emits 21 times more and a leaf blower 34 times more.

Reduce lawn size
Lawn size can be reduced by adding shrubs, beds, ground covers and mulched
areas. Try creating a lawn area small enough to be mowed using an
efficient reel (push) mower. Lawn edging can be set low enough to mow
over, reducing or eliminating the need for a weed-eater. Recycle whenever possible
Aluminum cans, newspapers, magazines, cardboard, glass – anything recycled
reduces the energy needed to create new products. To find the recycling
center nearest you, call: 1 800-CLEANUP. For ideas on home recycling, Eat locally produced food
Today, the food choices available in supermarkets come from all over the
world. All of this ‘traffic’ in food requires staggering amounts of fuel –
generally by refrigerated airplanes or transport trucks. Food
transportation is one of the fastest growing sources of greenhouse gas
emissions. Eat vegetarian meals
Vegetarian food requires much less energy to produce. Enjoying vegetarian
meals once or twice a week results in significant CO2 savings. Paint your home a light color if you live in a warm
climate, or a dark color in a cold climate.
This can contribute saving up to 5000 pounds of carbon dioxide per year.Choose clean energy options
If you can choose your electricity supplier, pick a company that generates
at least half its power from wind, solar energy and other renewable
sources.Buy clean energy certificates and carbon offsets
Help spur the renewable energy market and cut global warming pollution
with “wind certificates” or “green tags,” which represent clean power you
can add to the nation’s energy grid in place of electricity from fossil

A “carbon offset” is an emission reduction credit
which can be purchased by individuals, businesses and governments to reduce
their net greenhouse gas emissions.

these are needed to be taken in contact in order to prevent our earth from


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