The topic ofpolitical repressions during the communistic regimes is one of the mostimportant issues which has been discussed up till now. It was an act againsthuman rights and humanity in general which implies political motives and ismanifested in expulsion, deprivation of liberty, denationalization, coercion tolabor and the most terrific – death penalty. It isobvious that the main reason of repressions’ occurrence is political strugglefor power in state and the harsher this struggle is, the greater a scale ofrepressions.
Thus, to explain the scopes of the repressive policy in the USSRand other countries, it is necessary to understand which political forces actedat certain historical period. This essay is mostly based on analysis ofmortality rates during the times of dictators governing following Lenin’s ideaof socialism. Unfortunately, people do not realize the real scales of theirunlimited power and its consequences; further the essay will open the topic indeeper way, presenting the relevant data. Thefirst wave of repressions started in 1917, in the USSR, mostly represented bythe “Red Terror”, which became the beginning of terrifying acts againsthumanity from 20s until the death of Stalin and even later. The largestaction of the Red Terror was the shooting in Petrograd of 512 representativesof the elite (former dignitaries, ministers, professors). At the same time theother countries had only started finding the way to communism. And a little laterin China was formed communistic party (CPC).
Meanwhile,repressions in the USSR started growing. Prime example of that – dekulakization(forced eviction of peasants and the seizure of their property). According to the historian andreporter Zemskov, about 4 million people were completely dekulakized (the exactnumber is difficult to establish) of which in 1930-1940th, a kulak link wasvisited by 2.5 million, during this period in exile died 600 thousand people,the vast majority died in 1930-1933.
Death rates among special resettlesexceeded the birth rate from 7.8 times (for “old-timers”) to 40 times(for “new settlers”). Moreover, percentage of Poles and othernational minorities who lived in the USSR extremely decreased on 25% because ofdekulakization. On the contrary, in 1930 in Vietnam was created communistic party(VCP) and a few regions of Africa had chosen to build communistic regime. That is then(1932-1933) a huge famine took the lives of 7 million people. According to certainhistorians it was artificially made hunger by Stalin’s government in purpose ofelimination of particular peoples. In the same years notorious government agency(GULAG) intensified: about 2 million people were preparing for deportation.
Intotal in 1933 in the kulak exile around 151 601 people died. However, itwas just the beginning of mass terror. The harshest wave of repression took placein 1937-1938 years and was called the “Great Terror”. During those two years, 1575 259 people were arrested for the affairs of the NKVD authorities, for alltypes of crimes, of whom 681,692 people were sentenced to be shot. Estimatesfor the victims vary greatly.
Pursuant to certain reports, the number ofvictims of the Great Terror is over 1.5 million people. According to the KGB ofthe USSR, in 1937-1938, 1372329 people were arrested of which 681692 were shot.In 1937-1938 in the camps 115922 prisoners died.