The motive of this essay is to debate abnormality and the
effect of hereditary and environment factors on psychological disorder, which
is schizophrenia and depression. In debating this, methods of diagnosis and
cultural effects will be scrutinising
Abnormality can be interpreted in many ways. First
interpretation of abnormality is the deviation from the ideal mental health.
This implies that psychologist consider the distinct element of mental illness.
In respect to this analysis, people must be able to qualify for complete status
before been regard as normal. In 1958,
Johoda reviewed six distinct a person must possess before classified him/her
normal, here are the six barometers for personal positive view. Precise,
perception of reality and ability for growth and development. In other words,
if some does not have these quality, then that means such person would be
regarded as abnormal. With Johada point of view it is impossible to meet all
these criteria outlined for the interpretation.
Hill G (2001) Alevel psychology through Diagrams Oxford.
Oxford university press.
Hayess,N(1994) Foundation of psychology. An introduction
Text London Routledge.
The other interpretation for abnormality is the violation of
the social norm. In every culture, there
are unique ways that they are been practised. Cultural differences are
paramount, some culture will accept a specific practised while other culture
will go against it for example, in the society of Zulus, delusional and
piercing cry is normal but however in another culture it’s abnormal behaviour
especially in western cultures. Nevertheless, the clampdown of this definition
is that, what that has been accepted before could suddenly change over the
period as well as personal behaviour could also have changed since people
migrate from one location to the other and whatever culture that is been
practise in that area the must respect the culture. Meanwhile, there is a
saying that when you’re in room, you do as romans. Horford (1990 cited in
Hayes, 1994) stipulated that when psychiatric doctor diagnose black patient in
the UK as abnormal simply because of their culture, in this argument it was
because they are ignorant of black people’s culture and this has mount to
another problem of this definition.
Schizophrenia is a vigorous brain disorder and it can also
be classified as disease of the mind. It affects about one percent of the
population throughout the whole world. When schizophrenia is frisky, symptoms
misconception, uneasy with thinking and concentration, and deprivation of incentive. Nevertheless, when these
symptoms are dealt with, most people with schizophrenia will improve
tremendously over the time. This is not the case in some part of Africa
especially Nigeria where by the patient with schizophrenia suffers
stigmatization, if the patient laugh too much, people will be like won’t you
have your medication. In fact, there was a saying that is commonly used for
them particularly in Nigeria that ”no matter how you treat schizophrenia
patient, they always have their moment of reoccurrence. In other words,
depression is defined as a prevalent and significant medical illness that can
have negativity effect on how you feel
the way you think and how you act. The
symptoms are sadness, suicidal thought, loss of interest, inability to cope
with daily task, loss of appetite, and lack of sleep or sleeping too much.
Although this disorder is treatable. (www.simplypsychology.org).
Depression is defined as a low in mood that can linger for a
long time, and this can affect the patient’s everyday life. Depression is also classified as being low
spirits. although it doesn’t stop the
patient living their normal life but rather it makes everything harder to do
and seem worthwhile. Depression can be severe, depression can be
life-threatening, it usually makes the patients feel suicidal or simply give up
the will to live. (Law ,2012). Irons point of view (2014) there are two
different ways which can affect the way depression can change a person’s
emotion tremendously. A person can feel
decrease in positive emotion and an increase in negative emotions.
Iron C(2014) Depression.Basingstoke.Palgrave Macmillia.
Law, R.W(2012) Depression Oxford. Oxford University press
With all these traits that are defined using the statistical
and diagnostic manual of mental disorder, (DSM-5) and international
classification of diseases(ICD-10) were the mechanism that were used to detect
all mental illness, and it is been used by health professional and psychology.
The DSM was initially first published in 1952 whilst ICD-10
first perspective was in 1990. Invariably, both mechanisms have been modernised
over the years. DSM-5 is used to collate and communicating precise mental
health analysis problems. Meanwhile, ICD-10 is useful because it detects both
the diseases and death. However, it could be debate that both DSM-5 and ICD-10
was proofed useful and fast in diagnose the disease. Psychiatric (Feldman,
1992) used the mechanism to diagnosed mental disorder, he used the DSM-5 to
separate schizophrenia into four types. More so the DSM-5 detach those types as
it has been very tedious to alter in between each model.
The overthrown of DSM-5 and ICD-10 are reprove because hard
drugs can also lead to mental disorder. Exceptional in culture behaviours can
be categorised as a psychological disease as many society have different
It has also been criticised by Szasz (1961) stipulate that
mental health illness was been misdiagnose as mental was not mental disease at
all. Having said this, criticism, the DSM-5 and ICD-10 must be put into account
of cultural difference when be review.
Thus, this will help health care professionals in finding it easy when
assessing patient, all these should be included gender, religion and culture as
relating to previous DSM and ICD which fails to take a closer look of what was
going on the patient’s life and given the appropriate right treatment. Having
site all these critics, both the mechanism is the best in diagnosis all
different kind of mental disorder.
Whether Heredity, environmental or genetic causes all these disorders,
the nature of depression and schizophrenia will be explored.
It was maintained by researchers that the Geneticists and
twin studies have comparison virtue of two alternative measures of twin
concordance: the pairwise and probandwise concordance rates. It is now very
clear that the probandwise rate is preferred over the pairwise rate. In a recent
review of schizophrenia twin studies, however, Torrey (1992) chose to analyse
pairwise over probandwise rates. His
analyses concluded that the monozygotic twin concordance for schizophrenia is
feeble than what is widely accepted; hence, the enormity of the genetic
contribution to schizophrenia has been overestimated. In this brief commentary,
to review the comparison strengths and weaknesses of the pairwise and
It shows that Torrey’s analysis is based upon his incorrect
use of information pairwise rates. Twin studies of schizophrenia continue to
support the existence of a strong genetic impact on the development of
Having said all these, the 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic
genetic –co-twin pairs were used to calculate probandwise genetic
corresponding. The population lifetime morbid risk for BPD (mania and
depression or mania alone) was 0.32%, which was approximated using Camberwell
case register data
(Camberwell is the old borough of London where Maudsley
Hospital is located), as formally stipulated.8 Similarly, Camberwell data
provide a sexaveraged lifetime risk approximated for DSM-IV UPD of
approximately 6% based on the analysis of the researchers.
McGuffin PKatz RWatkins
SRutherford J A hospital-based
twin register of the heritability of DSM-IV unipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53129- 136
The brains of 232 patients with a case-note diagnosis of
schizophrenia or affective disorder that died were measured, and were evaluate.
From the sample, the brain that showed signs of the disease. The result is that
out of the 232 patients, 41 patients with schizophrenia and 29 patients with
affective disorder. It showed that the
brains of the patients with schizophrenia were 6% lighter; the studies suggest
that such expansion is lined with tissue loss in the temporal lobe. Those
changes in schizophrenia were of a small level than those seen in a sample of
Timothy J. Crow, PhD, FRCP, FRCPsych; Christopher D. Frith,
PHD; EVE C. Johnstone, MD, FRCP, FRCPsych; David G. C. Owens, MD, FRCP,
FRCPsych; Gareth W Roberts, PhD; Nigel Colter, BSc; Joanna Ball, MD, MRCP;
Steven R. Bloom, MD, FRCP; Rosemary Brown; Clive J. Bruton, MD.
Now one could see that depression and schizophrenia disorder
will not be only cause by genetic but an environmental could also contribute or
influence the cause of the disorder. It has been stipulated by researcher that,
depression can be genesis of genetic factor if it runs in the family down to
family tree, well this could be link with the present sufferer. The stumbling
block about genetic issue is that, family could also evolve a nurturing firma
for their offspring behaviour by going extra mile for them or rolling their
offspring in a tissue paper for a very long time. Too much of dopamine can also
be a vital contribution that cause schizophrenia. The side effect of
antipsychotic medication can be a block to dopamine in the brain. Well, on the
other hand, it is also argued that lack of serotonin cannot lead to depression,
already depression has been treated by anti -depressant but its side effect on
the other neurochemical could trigger depression apart from norepinephrine
serotonin (seen in psychology diagrammed 2001). Then Van Praag et al. (1987)
maintained that the work on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) had been a shamble
and endorser that the connection in between biochemical feature and signs needs
In conclusion, the remarkable of schizophrenia and
depression has been explained, its physical and biology, it has on the patient
suffering from it has also been explained in details. This essay also entails
the fact that if the both disorder are nature or nurture, the characteristics
of abnormalities was also taking into consideration. Meanwhile the big question
is about their diagnostic mechanism if it is a right one for the job it claimed
and the problem of the using the mechanism. The information provided by
patients might be untrue sometimes to prevent the misdiagnose in my own
opinion, I think through investigation must be in place.