The term education isderived from Latin word educare which literally means to ‘bring up’and is connected with the verb ‘educare’ which meant ‘bring forth’. Theidea of education is not merely to impart knowledge to the pupil in somesubjects but to develop in him those habits and attitudes with which he maysuccessfully face the future. Plato was of the opinion that the end of education was ‘to developin the body and in the soul all the beauty and all the perfection of which arecapable.’ It means, in short, ‘a sound mind in a sound body’.
Educationemploys a large army of people. Sociologist are becoming more and more aware ofthe importance and role of educational institution in the modern industrializedsocieties. In recent years education has become the major interest of somesociologist.
As a result a new branch of sociology called Sociology ofEducation has become established. There are numbers definitions ofeducation specified by the educationists from different viewpoint. But in itstechnical sense, education is the process by which society deliberatelytransmits it accumulated knowledge, skill and values from one generation toanother. Education is simply stated means the process of gaining knowledge,inculcating forms of proper conduct & acquiring technical competency itinvolves the cultivation of an innocent mind, the instilling of values andprinciples in the mind of children. The synonymous words of the word Educationare : Knowledge, teaching, understanding, realization, know how, experience,way of life, skill, sense, scholarship, culture, book learning, teaching,schooling, instruction, grasp, earning etc.All meaning education should aim at the humanization ofman/women, i.e. to make their own destiny.
In other words, the goal ofeducation is to make men/women to come out of every form of dehumanizingdomination and oppression women and girl child education, should lead to twokinds of awareness.Self awareness (awareness about the self and inner dynamics of theself)Social awareness ( awareness about the reality outside of one’sself) The role purpose of education is to educate all studentsand give everyone equal opportunity as ameans to succeed in life. Through knowledge and skill, all individual can achieve greatness.
Educationprovides pupils teaching skill that prepare there physically, mentally andsocially for the world of work in late life. Education is major aspect ofdevelopment of any modern society since if there is deficit of educated peoplethen society will stops its further progress. Every society consists of men and women, that is,individuals of both the sex. The societal principle of difference also includessex difference. All human societies attach great importance to sex difference.
Though men and women have been living together form the very inception of humanhistory, every society differentiates its members on the basis of sex, treatingman and women in different ways and that one sex should have status superior tothe other, but in practice, sexual differentiation is always translated intosexual inequality. Women produce children; women are mothers and wives; womendo the cooking, mending, sewing and washing; they take care of men and aresubordinate to male authority; they are largely excluded from high statusoccupations and from positions of power. Many areas of employment werecompletely shut for women. They have access to resources, technology and money.These generalizations apply, to some degree to practically every known humansociety. The most basic division of labour appears to be founded on sex orgender.
There are man’s jobs and women’s job in the simplest hunting andgathering bands and the most complex industrial societies. In terms of thereward of prestige, wealth and power attached to gender roles, women almostinvariably come off worst. In recent years, particularly with the rise of thewomen’s Liberation Movement, the reasons for sexually based division labour andfor the inequality between male and female roles have been hotly debated.Clearly women are biologically different from men. Though there is disagreementabout the exact nature and consequences of this difference; some sociologists,anthropologists and psychologists argue that it is sufficient to explain thebasic sexual division labour in all societies. As a mother, sister, daughter or wife, the role of the women in thedevelopment of human being personality in particular and the growth andprogress of society in general, can not be either denied of undervalued. Butfor centuries, man that is the male of the species had kept her under histhumb, allowing her own development to stagnate.
He treated her own developmentto stagnate. He treated her like property and she lived her life under thedomination of her man, ever if she was ill-treated abused or tortured. Theprimary reason why women are subjected to intimidation and violence is theirsubordinate status in a male dominated patriarchal society. The biological factof sex has created much difference between them. The aim and objectives,desires and aspirations, duties and responsibilities, dress styles andbehavioral patterns, role and statues of men and women are different. This doesnot mean that man and women represent two different cultures as such. Theyrepresent one way of life, one culture and one heritage. This is also true ofIndia and Indian women.
The degree of freedom and respectability given to womento move about and take part in public activities gives a good idea of the natureof the society to which they belong. The status accorded to women in societysymbolizes its level of progress. Educationin Traditional Indian Society:- Tradition education meant learning to read sacred literature. AmongHindus, members of the priestly castes, Brahmins, were learned in all branchesof sacred knowledge, while the other twice born castes (kshatriys and vaishyas)were given a less rigorous program but also learned practical skills. Shudrasand most women were not taught the sacred books but some women were taught toread. Some women form upper class Vaisnavita families learned to read puranicliterature. Muslim girls were expected to learn to read Quran and someaccounting skill but the strict seclusion observed by upper class familiesprohibited their daughters from attending schools.
Consequently, what theylearned about their religion they learned at home, ether from their families orthrough tutors. At the turn of the century there were only eleven Quran schoolsfor girls in Bengal with 142 students. At the beginning of the nineteenthcentury, female literacy was extremely low in relation to male literacy. Maleliteracy, ranging from approximately six percent in Bengal to 20 percent in the Deccan, was also low in comparisonwith western nations or japan.
Moreover indigenous schools for boys were on thedecline. Boy attended three kinds of school: small village school which taughtelementary reading and accounting, higher school for Hindus, primarilyBrahmins, which thought Sanskritgrammar, lexicography and literature, and Persian and Arabic schools forMuslims. We do not know how many of these school there were throughout India,but in Bengal there were approximately 100 traditional institutions perdistrict with a total of 10800 students.
There were 164 Hindus school in Poonain the 1820. WesternEducation in India. :- Western Education was introducedinto India because the East India Company needed clerks and translators. From1813 the Company set aside some money for education, and after the charter of1833 English became the officiallanguage. In 1844 Lord Hardinge announced that English educated Indians wouldbe given preference for government appointments.
Free traders voiced theirsupport for this policy believing it would help develop an Indian populationloyal to the British. The missionaries joined the chorus of approval. Eager toconvert Indians from influential families, missionaries recognized how mucheasier it would be with English as the language of professional advancement. Itwas only at the end of the century that these men saw the dangerous side ofeducation, that is, its tendency to promote nationalism and political unrest.Then, the government made attempts to control and even curtail education.
Longbefore the government decided to sponsor English education, Indian gentlemenset up Hindu College in Calcutta. Opened in 1816, Hindu College was designed toprepare young Indian men for lucrative positions with the East India Company.In the first three decades of the twentieth century Hindu College and similarschool throughout British India depended on the patronage of wealthy Indiansand were in direct competition with traditional schools teaching Sanskrit,Persian, and Arabic. As economic patterns changed, patronage for traditionalschools disappeared. At about the same time, bright young men decided to studyEnglish. Incontrast to support the boys schools, there was little interest in theeducation of girls. The colonial government, despite pressure exerted bymissionaries and liberals, was unconcerned with female education. Thismissionaries were interested in female education and school for girls because,they argued, women needed to be brought into the fold to make conversionspermanent.
But since men made the decisions, female education wasancillary. Lard Dalhousie, Governer-General of India from1848-1856, declared that no single change was likely to produce more importantand beneficial consequences than femaleeducation. Sir Charles Wood, president of the Board of Control form 1853-1855,issued an education dispatch in 1854 that detailed a shift in governmentpolicy, form providing higher education for the elites to supports form masseducation in the vernacular. This new focus on a total system of education wasto include both sexes. Thefinal social result of a hundred years of western education may now beindicated. The lower middle class is every where on the increase, but only upto a point.
It is not a geometrical point, but a demographic boundary, a broadand shifting. But the limit is determined, on one side, by the economicinterests of the upper group which the earlier educational policy had partyserved. But bigger social forces have at last enlarged that original set &increased the social mobility of the middle class and where the mobility has increased, its foundthat western education strengthens the caste barrier between that expending class & the masses. Reformed Hinduism & Female Education in Indian Society. The breakthrough came with the establishment of government schools,such as Bethune’s and schools sponsored by reformist religious intuitions.First the Brahmo Samaj, and later the Prarthana Samaj, Arya Samaj, andTheosophical Society all supported female education. Indians supported femaleeducation because they wanted social and religious reform, or social andfinancial mobility, or both.
The founders of Hindu College and other earlyschools for boys wanted to advance the opportunities of their own class. In thecase of female education, early supporters saw opportunities for socialmobility as the demand for educated brides increased. Members of the BrahmoSamaj the Bengal based reform society, led the movement for female educationand equality between the sexes. In North India female education was encouraged by the Arya Samaj of reformistHindu sect which followed the teaching of Swami Dayanand Saraswati. By the endof the 19th century, progressive Araya Samajists recognized theimportance of involving women in their reform efforts. The Jullundar Samajopend the Arya Kanya Pathshala (Girls School) in 1890 with a lady principal incharge. The Kanya Mahavidyalaya (Girls Higher School) of jullundar was openedsomewhat later.
Both this high School and the elementary girls school, firmlyestablished by 1892, owned their existence to the efforts of Lala Devraj. Heopened his first school for girls in the family home, supported it through thesale of waste paper and staffed it with teachers who were partially compensatedwith food from his mother’s kitchen. Women’s Education in Independent India. Womeneducation in modern India took a new turn after the Independent of the country.That is, women’s education got a fillip after the country got independence in1947 and government has taken various measures to provide education to allIndian women.
The Indian Constitution declared equality a fundamental right.This document also guaranteed equal protection of the law, equal opportunitiesa in public employment, and prohibited discrimination in public places. As aresult, women’s literacy rate has grown over the three decades and the growthof female literacy has in fact been higher than that of male literacy rate. In the present times, the Government ofIndia has taken measures to provide education to all women of the country.
Asthe result, women literacy rate has shown encouraging trends. The Government ofIndia had ushered in the new millennium by declaring the year 2001 as “women’sEmpowerment year” to focus on a vision ‘where women are equal partners likemen’. The objective of government policy in India has been to bring aboutdevelopment, advancement and empowerment of women in the country through activeparticipation of all stakeholders. Government policy has been to promotewomen’s participation in political, social and economic life of the nation andidentical access to health care, quality education, career and vocationalguidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security and public etc. The objectivehas been also to strengthen legal system aimed at elimination of all forms ofdiscrimination against women and changing the societal attitude and communitypractices by active participation and involvement of both men and women. Fiveyear plan: in the first five year plan, the issue to provide equal status ofwomen in India was focused.
In fact the first four five year plan were focusedon organizing various welfare activities for women’s with priority to women’seducation. The fifth and sixth plans witnessed a shift in approach from welfareto entire development of women in India. The seventh plan laid stress onefforts to identity and promote beneficiary oriented programmed with theintention of extending direct benefits to women in India. The eighth plan madea significance shift from development to women’s empowerment . It recommended30 % reservation for women at all level of government. The ninth plan ensuredthat a minimum 30% of benefits or funds flow to women form all ministries anddepartments of the government.
As the result, some positive indicators ofwomen’s development in India can be seen in the female literacy rate, whichrose form 8% in 1947 to 54% in the 2001census. Table 1 : State/UT wise Literacy Rate in India as per Census, 2011 S.No.
State/UT Person Total Male Female INDIA 73.0 80.9 64.6 1. Andhra Pradesh 67.0 74.9 59.
1 2. Arunachal Pradesh 65.4 72.6 57.
7 3. Assam 72.2 77.8 66.3 4. Bihar 61.8 71.
2 51.5 5. Chhattisgarh 70.3 80.3 60.2 6. Goa 88.
7 92.6 84.7 7. Gujarat 78.0 85.8 69.7 8. Haryana 75.
6 84.1 65.9 9. Himachal Pradesh 82.8 89.5 75.9 10.
Jammu & Kashmir 67.2 76.8 56.4 11.
Jharkhand 66.4 76.8 55.4 12. Karnataka 75.4 82.5 68.
1 13. Kerala 94.0 96.1 92.
1 14. Madhya Pradesh 69.3 78.7 59.2 15. Maharashtra 82.3 88.4 75.
9 16. Manipur 76.9 836 70.3 17. Meghalaya 74.4 76.0 72.
9 18. Mizoram 91.3 93.3 89.3 19. Nagaland 79.
6 82.8 76.1 20. Odessa 72.9 81.
6 64.0 21. Punjab 75.8 80.4 70.7 22. Rajasthan 66.1 79.
2 52.1 23. Sikkim 81.4 86.
6 75.6 24. Tamil Nadu 80.1 86.8 73.
4 25. Tripura 87.2 91.5 82.7 26. Uttar Pradesh 67.7 77.
3 57.2 27. Uttara Khand 78.8 87.4 70.0 28.
West Bengal 76.3 81.7 70.5 29. A & N Islands 86.6 90.
3 82.4 30. Chandigarh 70.3 80.3 81.2 31. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 76.2 85.
2 64.3 32. Daman and Diu 76.2 91.
5 79.5 33. Delhi 86.2 90.
9 80.8 34. Lakshadweep 91.8 95.
6 87.9 35. Pondicherry 85.8 91.3 80.7 Source: Census of India 2011, Registrar General of India Website: www.census of inida.gov.
in The 15th officialcensus in India was calculated in the year 2011. In a country like India.Literacy is the main foundation for social and economic growth. When theBritish rule ended in India in the year 1947 the literacy rate was just 12%.Over the years India has changed socially, economically, and globally after the2011 census, literacy rate India 2011 was found to be 74.04% compared to theadult literacy rate here the youth literacy rate is about 9 % higher.
Theliteracy rates among the various states are also varied. For instance, Keralahas the highest female literacy rate, with over 90.8% of women literacy in 2011.The state with the second highest female literacy is Mizoram, where 89.03% of women are literate. On the other hand, thereare several states that have literacy rates of less than 52%, including Bihar and Uttar Pardesh, the two most populousstates in the country. Conclusion :- Thoughthe status of women in Indian society, both historically and socially, has beenone of the respect and reverence, but hard truth is that even today, theystruggling for their own identity, shouting for diffusion of their voices andfighting for their own esteem.
The woman is a mother of Earth (Dharti Mata) whoas a mother is “Supreme being and Guru”. She plays a role of mother, sister anddaughter. She started women and social life. We started own human and sociallife from her. They are life partners and co-traveler of man in the creator oflife and progress of the society. They are part of the development of thecountry without which the development is not possible. A family is not happyand strong until the women enacting the important role of mother, housewife ordaughter are themselves not happy. They give birth to human being/beings whilefacing many problem, hardships and difficulties and nurture and educate them.
They are first teacher of the children in the beginning of life. They are queenof the household without them the household could not be properly managed. Thusfor the overall development of women, it is essential to encourage their activeparticipation in various development programs. For this purpose spreads ofeducation is must among said section of the society. Women need to be educatedabout merits of develop her economic status.
Furthermore employmentopportunities must be created for women so that their level of earning could beimproved and they could be made self-development. Therefore in pursuit ofmaking India a great nation, education should work towards giving women theirmuch deserved status. Overall developmentof any country is directly linked to the education of its women.
As mothers,women have the capacity to change the dynamics of the home, the child, andeventually the nation. Recent studies have shown that there is a minimumthreshold level of education that must be reached because the mother’sschooling positively affects her children. At level five of six years,basically a primary education, is needed to achieve that level.
In India,almost 60% of the literate women have only primary education. However, therenewed emphasis in the education sector in the 11th Five Year Planand increased expenditure in education can act as palliatives for the women’seducation scenario in India. After Independence, Government of India tookseveral initiatives, programmes and policies, apart from constitutional andlegal safeguards for the education of women in the country.