The term education is
derived from Latin word educare which literally means to ‘bring up’
and is connected with the verb ‘educare’ which meant ‘bring forth’. The
idea of education is not merely to impart knowledge to the pupil in some
subjects but to develop in him those habits and attitudes with which he may
successfully face the future. Plato was of the opinion  that the end of education was ‘to develop
in the body and in the soul all the beauty and all the perfection of which are
capable.’ It means, in short, ‘a sound mind in a sound body’. Education
employs a large army of people. Sociologist are becoming more and more aware of
the importance and role of educational institution in the modern industrialized
societies. In recent years education has become the major interest of some
sociologist. As a result a new branch of sociology called Sociology of
Education has become established. There are numbers definitions of
education specified by the educationists from different viewpoint. But in its
technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately
transmits it accumulated knowledge, skill and values from one generation to
another. Education is simply stated means the process of gaining knowledge,
inculcating forms of proper conduct & acquiring technical competency it
involves the cultivation of an innocent mind, the instilling of values and
principles in the mind of children. The synonymous words of the word Education
are : Knowledge, teaching, understanding, realization, know how, experience,
way of life, skill, sense, scholarship, culture, book learning, teaching,
schooling, instruction, grasp, earning etc.

All meaning education should aim at the humanization of
man/women, i.e. to make their own destiny. In other words, the goal of
education is to make men/women to come out of every form of dehumanizing
domination and oppression women and girl child education, should lead to two
kinds of awareness.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Self awareness (awareness about the self and inner dynamics of the
self)

Social awareness ( awareness about the reality outside of one’s
self)

            The role purpose of education is to educate all students
and give everyone equal  opportunity as a
means to succeed in life. Through 
knowledge and skill, all individual can achieve greatness. Education
provides pupils teaching skill that prepare there physically, mentally and
socially for the world of work in late life. Education is major aspect of
development of any modern society since if there is deficit of educated people
then society will stops its further progress.

Every society consists of men and women, that is,
individuals of both the sex. The societal principle of difference also includes
sex difference. All human societies attach great importance to sex difference.
Though men and women have been living together form the very inception of human
history, every society differentiates its members on the basis of sex, treating
man and women in different ways and that one sex should have status superior to
the other, but in practice, sexual differentiation is always translated into
sexual inequality. Women produce children; women are mothers and wives; women
do the cooking, mending, sewing and washing; they take care of men and are
subordinate to male authority; they are largely excluded from high status
occupations and from positions of power. Many areas of employment were
completely shut for women. They have access to resources, technology and money.
These generalizations apply, to some degree to practically every known human
society. The most basic division of labour appears to be founded on sex or
gender. There are man’s jobs and women’s job in the simplest hunting and
gathering bands and the most complex industrial societies. In terms of the
reward of prestige, wealth and power attached to gender roles, women almost
invariably come off worst. In recent years, particularly with the rise of the
women’s Liberation Movement, the reasons for sexually based division labour and
for the inequality between male and female roles have been hotly debated.
Clearly women are biologically different from men. Though there is disagreement
about the exact nature and consequences of this difference; some sociologists,
anthropologists and psychologists argue that it is sufficient to explain the
basic sexual division labour in all societies.

            As a mother, sister, daughter or wife, the role of the women in the
development of human being personality in particular and the growth and
progress of society in general, can not be either denied of undervalued. But
for centuries, man that is the male of the species had kept her under his
thumb, allowing her own development to stagnate. He treated her own development
to stagnate. He treated her like property and she lived her life under the
domination of her man, ever if she was ill-treated abused or tortured. The
primary reason why women are subjected to intimidation and violence is their
subordinate status in a male dominated patriarchal society. The biological fact
of sex has created much difference between them. The aim and objectives,
desires and aspirations, duties and responsibilities, dress styles and
behavioral patterns, role and statues of men and women are different. This does
not mean that man and women represent two different cultures as such. They
represent one way of life, one culture and one heritage. This is also true of
India and Indian women. The degree of freedom and respectability given to women
to move about and take part in public activities gives a good idea of the nature
of the society to which they belong. The status accorded to women in society
symbolizes its level of progress. 

Education
in Traditional Indian Society:-

                        Tradition education meant learning to read sacred literature. Among
Hindus, members of the priestly castes, Brahmins, were learned in all branches
of sacred knowledge, while the other twice born castes (kshatriys and vaishyas)
were given a less rigorous program but also learned practical skills. Shudras
and most women were not taught the sacred books but some women were taught to
read. Some women form upper class Vaisnavita families learned to read puranic
literature. Muslim girls were expected to learn to read Quran and some
accounting skill but the strict seclusion observed by upper class families
prohibited their daughters from attending schools. Consequently, what they
learned about their religion they learned at home, ether from their families or
through tutors. At the turn of the century there were only eleven Quran schools
for girls in Bengal with 142 students. At the beginning of the nineteenth
century, female literacy was extremely low in relation to male literacy. Male
literacy, ranging from approximately six percent in Bengal to 20 percent  in the Deccan, was also low in comparison
with western nations or japan. Moreover indigenous schools for boys were on the
decline. Boy attended three kinds of school: small village school which taught
elementary reading and accounting, higher school for Hindus, primarily
Brahmins, which  thought Sanskrit
grammar, lexicography and literature, and Persian and Arabic schools for
Muslims. We do not know how many of these school there were throughout India,
but in Bengal there were approximately 100 traditional institutions per
district with a total of 10800 students. There were 164 Hindus school in Poona
in the 1820. 

Western
Education in India. :-

                           Western Education was introduced
into India because the East India Company needed clerks and translators. From
1813 the Company set aside some money for education, and after the charter of
1833 English became  the official
language. In 1844 Lord Hardinge announced that English educated Indians would
be given preference for government appointments. Free traders voiced their
support for this policy believing it would help develop an Indian population
loyal to the British. The missionaries joined the chorus of approval. Eager to
convert Indians from influential families, missionaries recognized how much
easier it would be with English as the language of professional advancement. It
was only at the end of the century that these men saw the dangerous side of
education, that is, its tendency to promote nationalism and political unrest.
Then, the government made attempts to control and even curtail education. Long
before the government decided to sponsor English education, Indian gentlemen
set up Hindu College in Calcutta. Opened in 1816, Hindu College was designed to
prepare young Indian men for lucrative positions with the East India Company.
In the first three decades of the twentieth century Hindu College and similar
school throughout British India depended on the patronage of wealthy Indians
and were in direct competition with traditional schools teaching Sanskrit,
Persian, and Arabic. As economic patterns changed, patronage for traditional
schools disappeared. At about the same time, bright young men decided to study
English.

                        In
contrast to support the boys schools, there was little interest in the
education of girls. The colonial government, despite pressure exerted by
missionaries and liberals, was unconcerned with female education. This
missionaries were interested in female education and school for girls because,
they argued, women needed to be brought into the fold to make conversions
permanent. But since men made the decisions, female education was
ancillary.  Lard  Dalhousie, Governer-General of India from
1848-1856, declared that no single change was likely to produce more important
and beneficial  consequences than female
education. Sir Charles Wood, president of the Board of Control form 1853-1855,
issued an education dispatch in 1854 that detailed a shift in government
policy, form providing higher education for the elites to supports form mass
education in the vernacular. This new focus on a total system of education was
to include both sexes.

                        The
final social result of a hundred years of western education may now be
indicated. The lower middle class is every where on the increase, but only up
to a point. It is not a geometrical point, but a demographic boundary, a broad
and shifting. But the limit is determined, on one side, by the economic
interests of the upper group which the earlier educational policy had party
served. But bigger social forces have at last enlarged that original set &
increased the social mobility of the middle class and  where the mobility has increased, its found
that western education strengthens the caste 
barrier between that expending class & the masses.

Reformed Hinduism & Female Education in Indian Society.

            The breakthrough came with the establishment of government schools,
such as Bethune’s and schools sponsored by reformist religious intuitions.
First the Brahmo Samaj, and later the Prarthana Samaj, Arya Samaj, and
Theosophical Society all supported female education. Indians supported female
education because they wanted social and religious reform, or social and
financial mobility, or both. The founders of Hindu College and other early
schools for boys wanted to advance the opportunities of their own class. In the
case of female education, early supporters saw opportunities for social
mobility as the demand for educated brides increased. Members of the Brahmo
Samaj the Bengal based reform society, led the movement for female education
and equality between the sexes. In North 
India female education was encouraged by the Arya Samaj of reformist
Hindu sect which followed the teaching of Swami Dayanand Saraswati. By the end
of the 19th century, progressive Araya Samajists recognized the
importance of involving women in their reform efforts. The Jullundar Samaj
opend the Arya Kanya Pathshala (Girls School) in 1890 with a lady principal in
charge. The Kanya Mahavidyalaya (Girls Higher School) of jullundar was opened
somewhat later. Both this high School and the elementary girls school, firmly
established by 1892, owned their existence to the efforts of Lala Devraj. He
opened his first school for girls in the family home, supported it through the
sale of waste paper and staffed it with teachers who were partially compensated
with food from his mother’s kitchen.

Women’s Education in Independent India.

                   Women
education in modern India took a new turn after the Independent of the country.
That is, women’s education got a fillip after the country got independence in
1947 and government has taken various measures to provide education to all
Indian women. The Indian Constitution declared equality a fundamental right.
This document also guaranteed equal protection of the law, equal opportunities
a in public employment, and prohibited discrimination in public places. As a
result, women’s literacy rate has grown over the three decades and the growth
of female literacy has in fact been higher than that of male literacy  rate. In the present times, the Government of
India has taken measures to provide education to all women of the country. As
the result, women literacy rate has shown encouraging trends. The Government of
India had ushered in the new millennium by declaring the year 2001 as “women’s
Empowerment year” to focus on a vision ‘where women are equal partners like
men’. The objective of government policy in India has been to bring about
development, advancement and empowerment of women in the country through active
participation of all stakeholders. Government policy has been to promote
women’s participation in political, social and economic life of the nation and
identical access to health care, quality education, career and vocational
guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety,  social security and public etc. The objective
has been also to strengthen legal system aimed at elimination of all forms of
discrimination against women and changing the societal attitude and community
practices by active participation and involvement of both men and women.

                        Five
year plan: in the first five year plan, the issue to provide equal status of
women in India was focused. In fact the first four five year plan were focused
on organizing various welfare activities for women’s with priority to women’s
education. The fifth and sixth plans witnessed a shift in approach from welfare
to entire development of women in India. The seventh plan laid stress on
efforts to identity and promote beneficiary oriented programmed with the
intention of extending direct benefits to women in India. The eighth plan made
a significance shift from development to women’s empowerment . It recommended
30 % reservation for women at all level of government. The ninth plan ensured
that a minimum 30% of benefits or funds flow to women form all ministries and
departments of the government. As the result, some positive indicators of
women’s development in India can be seen in the female literacy rate, which
rose form 8% in 1947 to 54% in the 2001census.

Table 1 : State/UT wise Literacy Rate in India as per Census, 2011

S.No.

State/UT

Person

 

Total

Male

Female

 

 

INDIA

73.0

80.9

64.6

 

1.

Andhra
Pradesh

67.0

74.9

59.1

 

2.

Arunachal
Pradesh

65.4

72.6

57.7

 

3.

Assam

72.2

77.8

66.3

 

4.

Bihar

61.8

71.2

51.5

 

5.

Chhattisgarh

70.3

80.3

60.2

 

6.

Goa

88.7

92.6

84.7

 

7.

Gujarat

78.0

85.8

69.7

 

8.

Haryana

75.6

84.1

65.9

 

9.

Himachal
Pradesh

82.8

89.5

75.9

 

10.

Jammu
& Kashmir

67.2

76.8

56.4

 

11.

Jharkhand

66.4

76.8

55.4

 

12.

Karnataka

75.4

82.5

68.1

 

13.

Kerala

94.0

96.1

92.1

 

14.

Madhya
Pradesh

69.3

78.7

59.2

 

15.

Maharashtra

82.3

88.4

75.9

 

16.

Manipur

76.9

836

70.3

 

17.

Meghalaya

74.4

76.0

72.9

 

18.

Mizoram

91.3

93.3

89.3

 

19.

Nagaland

79.6

82.8

76.1

 

20.

Odessa

72.9

81.6

64.0

 

21.

Punjab

75.8

80.4

70.7

 

22.

Rajasthan

66.1

79.2

52.1

 

23.

Sikkim

81.4

86.6

75.6

 

24.

Tamil
Nadu

80.1

86.8

73.4

 

25.

Tripura

87.2

91.5

82.7

 

26.

Uttar
Pradesh

67.7

77.3

57.2

 

27.

Uttara
Khand

78.8

87.4

70.0

 

28.

West
Bengal

76.3

81.7

70.5

 

29.

A &
N Islands

86.6

90.3

82.4

 

30.

Chandigarh

70.3

80.3

81.2

 

31.

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

76.2

85.2

64.3

 

32.

Daman
and Diu

76.2

91.5

79.5

 

33.

Delhi

86.2

90.9

80.8

 

34.

Lakshadweep

91.8

95.6

87.9

 

35.

Pondicherry

85.8

91.3

80.7

 

Source: Census of India 2011, Registrar
General of India

Website: www.census
of inida.gov.in

 

 

          The 15th official
census in India was calculated in the year 2011. In a country like India.
Literacy is the main foundation for social and economic growth. When the
British rule ended in India in the year 1947 the literacy rate was just 12%.
Over the years India has changed socially, economically, and globally after the
2011 census, literacy rate India 2011 was found to be 74.04% compared to the
adult literacy rate here the youth literacy rate is about 9 % higher. The
literacy rates among the various states are also varied. For instance, Kerala
has the highest female literacy rate, with over 90.8% of women literacy in 2011.
The state with the second highest female literacy is Mizoram, where 89.03%  of women are literate. On the other hand, there
are several states that have literacy rates of 
less than 52%, including Bihar and Uttar Pardesh, the two most populous
states in the country.

Conclusion :-

            Though
the status of women in Indian society, both historically and socially, has been
one of the respect and reverence, but hard truth is that even today, they
struggling for their own identity, shouting for diffusion of their voices and
fighting for their own esteem. The woman is a mother of Earth (Dharti Mata) who
as a mother is “Supreme being and Guru”. She plays a role of mother, sister and
daughter. She started women and social life. We started own human and social
life from her. They are life partners and co-traveler of man in the creator of
life and progress of the society. They are part of the development of the
country without which the development is not possible. A family is not happy
and strong until the women enacting the important role of mother, housewife or
daughter are themselves not happy. They give birth to human being/beings while
facing many problem, hardships and difficulties and nurture and educate them.
They are first teacher of the children in the beginning of life. They are queen
of the household without them the household could not be properly managed. Thus
for the overall development of women, it is essential to encourage their active
participation in various development programs. For this purpose spreads of
education is must among said section of the society. Women need to be educated
about merits of develop her economic status. Furthermore employment
opportunities must be created for women so that their level of earning could be
improved and they could be made self-development. Therefore in pursuit of
making India a great nation, education should work towards giving women their
much deserved status.

            Overall development
of any country is directly linked to the education of its women. As mothers,
women have the capacity to change the dynamics of the home, the child, and
eventually the nation. Recent studies have shown that there is a minimum
threshold level of education that must be reached because the mother’s
schooling positively affects her children. At level five of six years,
basically a primary education, is needed to achieve that level. In India,
almost 60% of the literate women have only primary education. However, the
renewed emphasis in the education sector in the 11th Five Year Plan
and increased expenditure in education can act as palliatives for the women’s
education scenario in India. After Independence, Government of India took
several initiatives, programmes and policies, apart from constitutional and
legal safeguards for the education of women in the country. 

x

Hi!
I'm Erica!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out