The shaping of a country’s cultural policy depends on agreat deal of the way we perceive and we mean culture.
The word “culture” originates from the Latin verb colorewhich meant the cultivation of the solid. Cicero for the first time used itmetaphorically as “cultivating the soul”. In the later Renaissancethe Humanists inaugurate its metaphorical use as “cultivating themind”Culture is in line with the values ??of spiritual andaesthetic cultivation, cultural tradition and identity, is positively charged,as it is linked to its elevation the spirituality of man and opposed to thesweeping materialism and the boon of technological culture. The views expressedby the American anthropologist F. Boas and the English historian E. Thompson inthe mid-20sTh century leads to a new concept of culture, according to which themobility of social groups, within which a culture develops, is an importantfactor that makes it dynamic azz
d internally heterogeneous.
Culture refers to”the whole field of meaning, as it is a radically heterogeneous fieldbecause of the wide variety of social experiences, roles and relationships thatmake up social lifeAccording to the statement by the Mondiacult of the WorldConference on Political Policy held in 1982 in Mexico: “With itswidespread culture, today represents the totality of the different mental,intellectual and material, mental and emotional elements that characterize asociety or a social group. It includes, in addition to letters and craftsmen,the way of life, the basic human rights, the system of values, the traditionsand the doctrines. …
. In its narrow sense, it means mainly the whole values??and the cognitive and aesthetic habits of a community, and under this prism includes cultural heritage,the arts, literature and thought movements. “The theoreticians in general moved on two semantic axes todefine the concept of culture. According to the former, the word refers to allphilosophical, musical, literary or artistic creations and refers to thecultivated or wise or humanistic culture, which is located in highly processedproducts of knowledge and art. The second axis is the one that refers to allpractices and knowledge, intellectual and material, and is closer to theapproach of anthropologists. This level includes the ways that one feels,thinks and does (eg food, clothing, behavioral patterns, communication codes,etc.)The C18th German Gottfried Herder constructed the academicand romantic concept of culture as civilisation This is heavily Eurocentric and steeped in the philosophyand mythology of Europe as the cradle of civilisation Later in the C19th Mathew Arnold and his peers appropriatedthe term in a more restrictive manner It meantintellectual refinement, the best that has been produced. He termedthis ‘high’ culture which became shaped by its opposition to ‘popular’ or ‘low’culturethe shared values and patterns of behaviour thatcharacterise different social groups and communities’ Ken Robinson’s All OurFuturess.
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport’s (DCMS’s)website admits ‘There is no official government definition of “culture”.’5Many within the arts understand culture as the best that hasbeen produced within specific art forms and this still underpins the thinkingof the Arts Council The narrower ‘high’ art understanding that recognises thebest as enculturation into specific Eurocentric canons is intentionally elitistThe canons have to be maintained and reconstructedThey are dependent on cultural gatekeepers who determinewhat is the best – who and what determines these peopleThe culture in the art”If art is to nourish the roots of our culture, societymust set the artist free to follow his vision wherever it takes him.” –JohnF. Kennedy Art is culture and is also formed by culture!There is not such thing as high low art anymore ,there is animportant initiative/turn to cultural democracy. The diversity of nowadaysculture demands equal access to culture for every member of the society. Inorder this to be ensured, therole of police makers and governance is vital!Throughcultural democracy Theconcept is that ‘culture’ as expressed through the arts in the westerncanon and democratisation is only achieved through increasing people’s access,which requires education into its symbolic codes and greater exposure to it.
That needseems to be understood by BritishCultural Policy makers that in their attempt to democratization ofculture …(White Paper) Great Culture for everyone!….So through the strategicplan try to embrace diversity and and accessibility in the Arts For everybodyin the society.
The arts can help individuals and communitiesby bringing people together and removing social barriers. The UK government isworking to support the arts community to give access to all, improve wellbeingin the UK and boost the UK’s economy.GOV.
UK ArtsCouncil England is the thenon?departmental public body responsible for the majority of arts funding inEngland in corporation withBritish Governance since…. Are fundingarts. But the plethora of art creation in order to be controlled in economicterms. The great demand for publicfunding has emerged the need of “public value”. In terms of what is worthfunding/supporting! The innovation thatpv.
Its contribution is that sets the public needs and preferences in thecentral role of arbiter,,,, Publicvalue isWhile analysing ways to accomplish public value, one of themain barrier detected in the public domain was the failure to eavesdropsociety’s heartbeat when establishing priorities. And who could be better at pointing out theneeds of society than society itself? Public value hence is reached by amethodology that includes society as a key player, and that emphases on theprocess for achieving public value as much as in the value itself.The notion of public value was first introduced by (Moore,1995)in his book Creating public value, as as suggestion about bublic servicesreform, in contradiction to “New Public Management”. Moore approaches publicvalue as the equivalent of shareholder value in public management. …. How public services can contribute to publicgood.
The Moores approach about publicvalue was embraced by Brithish Cultural Policy as an attempt to offer that addreesing to (Kelly et al,2002) assess public value as a way of thinkingabout the aims and the performance of public policy and describes it as ayardstick for the evaluation of activities produced or supported by government or provided byother nongovernmental bodies but sponsored by government. In2000 during a conference called “Valuating Culture” hostedby Demos, the think tank, the notion of public value extended to the Culturedomain as a discussion whether the publicly funded art and culturalorganizations should adopt intstrumenal criteria in order to take the money. A yearafter Tessa Jowell, DCMS Secretery publishes a report where she underlines the need of a newlanguage able to capture the full range of values articulated through theculture.
As a response to that Holden proposed “Cultural Value”. Public value in a democracy acquires value when it has valuefor the public. According to (Holden,2004) The public value in the arts contextgives the opportunity to “turna right to art from an aspiration into a reality”and that means that we might change the way we fund culture….For public value in the cultural sector Holden, creates hisown model named Cultural Value where he distinguishes three kinds of value inpublicly funded culture; the intrinsic value , the instrumental value and theinstitutional value. These values work in a dialectic between culturalprofetionals , politicians, policy makers and the public.The intrinsic value is defined by Holden as “the setof values that relate t the subjective experience of culture intellectually,emotionally and spiritually (Holden,2006).
Intrinsic value is shaped by individualpreferences,but preferences are not standing still during the past o time,thecan change unpredicted. But the difficulty in measuring that value leadsoften to be neglected by policy debate.intrinsic value is integral part ofculture. What make people cherish the arts? e, Capturing Cultural Valuesuggested that Professor David Throsby’s categorisations of historical, social,symbolic, aesthetic and spiritual value would be a good starting point, becausethey break down a nebulous concept into more manageable terms expressed ineveryday language.
(Holden,2006)The instrumental value has to do with the achievement ofeconomic and social goals and usually (but not always) measured by figures.This kind of value tends to be translated with terms such as “outcome”,” impact”,”output”. And is related with politicians and policy makers inside the culturalmarket by (Holden,2006) this value is related to the profesionals and Holdenthinks that instrumental value provides inaquate account of the Value ofCulture.Institutional value is about the role of Culturalorganasations in the creation of value for the public. They function as theintermediaries between public and the political representatives/politicians andthe also cutribute to the creation and the deconstruction of what has value forthe public(? Cultrural organisations function as mediators between institutionsand the public and also as creators of what the public values. Trust,transparency and fairness should be produced by cultural organisations in theirdealing with the public, in order that to be achieced.
(holden,20000)At thatpoint it’s a matter of high importance how institutions wille generate theirvalues through their mission.The challenge of measurementThe measurement in intrinsic value can be appoached bypersonal testimony, qualitive surveys and critical reviews but since it’s amatter of individual intake its a problematic area to measure. Morespecifically the way, that through cultural experiences society can be affectedor desirable social achievements can be accomplished, is quite uncertain(holden,2006). Furthermore should in intrinsic value be involved standards issues, and what the role of proffetional onshapinig or not those standards? At tha point Holden The problems of ‘capturing’ instrumental value recognised inCapturing Cultural Valu(Holden 20000)e as well as in texts by Selwood, Ellis,Oakley, RAND, DCMS and Carey., The problems that seems to exist are thefollowing: a causal link between culture and a beneficial economic or socialoutcome is difficult because of temporal remoteness, complexity of theinteraction, the context in which it takes place, and the multiplicity of otherfactors impacting on the result. Thereis little in the way of longitudinal evidence to support correlation betweenculture and its effects because cultural practice, the context in which ittakes place and policy goals are constantly shifting.
‘Evidence’ is often confused with advocacy.Cultural Value and the Crisis of Legitimacy 16 Demos It is virtually impossible to prove that,even if a cultural intervention works, it is the most direct and cost-effectiveway of achieving a particular social or economic aim. Fundamentally theseproblems exist because, when it comes to instrumental benefits, culture createspotential rather than having a predictable effect.
Nonetheless, in spite of thedifficulties with the evidence, much of the rationale for the public funding ofculture rests on an appeal to its effectiveness in achieving instrumental aims.A clear example can be found in the agreement between Arts Council England andthe Local Government Association, which states that their joint approach to thearts will focus on: the creative economy healthy communities vital neighbourhoods engaging young people.16 Capturing CulturalValue argues that culture does have significant instrumental value, but thatinstrumental value on its own does not give an adequate account of the value ofculture, and that, moreover, better methodologies need to be found todemonstrate instrumental value in a convincing way.(holden,2006) Instituitional value is evidenced through the feedback ofpublic, people close to cultural institution§ … institutional value is related to the techniques that orgs use to capure value targetingtheir audience development The focus of ‘Not for the Likes of You’ has been on how a cultural organisation can becomeaccessible to a broad general audience bychanging its overall positioning and message, rather than just byimplementing targeted audience development schemes or projects(Smith,2004) whenwe talk about access (or beingaccessible) we mean access in its very broadest sense – not just physicalaccess but also psychological, emotional, intellectual, cultural and financialaccess;§ an organisation’s positioningrefers to the place it occupies in the minds of the public vis a vis thealternatives available to them; and § the message is the wayin which that positioning is expressed to potential audiences and visitors. CritiquesBesides the challenges that public value model faces interms of mesurament and the need of a new cultural value that will embrace thetotality of culture as notion and hence it wll be more stable established ingovernace priorities, that modele although its still new, is facing someremarkable critiques.(Keany,200000 )The main concearn is the vague and diverse nature of publicpreferences creates a huge difficulty in capuring.
According to (Rogers,2003)its tough to pursued the diverse ways in which public gives value to somethingand the only way that makes I possible is through the democratic process. Thearbitur between opposing claim in a Democracy is the state. Another worry expressed by (Grabtree,2004)is that theconcept is in jeopardy to become meaningless. He points out that the unclearreferences about value,will deprive the power of public vlue as managementtool towards a soft -opera rationale. But In my opinion ifthose unclear …references don’t become implicit that management tool willprobably be faulty. Public Value (or Public Value Capital) then is the combined viewof the public about what they regard as valuable.Talbot, 2006 Its all about access.
Accessibility creates Value. Not physicalaccessibility but intellectual and spiritual! But how can we engage theaudience in order to take the maximum access from art/cultural work. Especialyindividuals with shaped personalities-preferences (through their education,experiences, etc) Simply we can’t. At least completely! But what we can do istry to communicate the salutary effects of the art to young people.
Educationis the key. Through that contact we encourage them to feel more confident in anart space, to shape their preferences by accessing equaly all of their culturaloptions. But cultural focued educationdoesn’t necesserely mean that all the artforms will be the same accessible toall, maybe intelectualy yes. But the intrinsic value that is provided throughthe spiritual experience is something that we cant accomplish, because we cantcontrol people preferees and that’s not the point. Access and accessibility( in order sth tobecame valuable for the public mast be accessible. But what is accessibility.
Accessibility can be physicaly, intellectual,emotional and spriritual. Physicaly accessibility considers the public as asubject with material substance having access to a set time-space. That natureof accessibility as term, concludes matters of access of people with kineticaldisabilities wheelchairs, pushchairs and everything that might effect theaccess to the building. Apart from that access, disabilities of mentality or ingeneral people with special needs,deaph, blind, dyslexic, dowm syndrome etc.should have eqoual opportunities to cherice the arts.
But besides disablepeople physical accessibily has to to with how easy is the access to a place.For example if somebody is leaving in a cottage in countryside Tate is not thataccessible. The transportation around a Cultural building also contributes toits accessibility. Movingon to a more complex form of accessibility, intellectual accessibility comesafter we enter the building and reach the artpiece. While looking it, how it affects as intellectually? Thepart of intellectual accessibility relates to the intrisic character ofvalue as its perceived by eachindividual. It may dependes on the knowledge, the education and formerexperiences that have may affect somebodys artistic preferences.
Anotherfragment of acces , the emotional accessibility is related to the feelling thatan artistic experience creates to people. Feelling welcomed it is the demandand the aim of UK institutional cultural policy. But how can we moderate thefeellings of others? Another blur area for research. Finally,the spiritual access is the most blur area of resherch, it is difficult todefine, let alone to measure. Margaret A. Burkhardt andMary Gail Nagai-Jacobson, Spirituality: living our connectedness,Delmar Cengage Learning, p.
xiii approaches it as Spiritualexperiences can include being connected to a larger reality, yielding a morecomprehensive self; joining withother individuals or the human community;with nature or the cosmos; or with the divine realm. Besides thedifficulty of measurement itArts as Arnold pput it has the same influenceto people as religion, an influence on good behaiviour but without being clear hotha is accomplishedSummarizingaccessibility is a relatively new concearn, from building access to to theslippery word “perceived”. arts can beperceived as inclusive,welcoming everyone, or as exclusive , they have beenaccused for that. In order to make art institiutionalsaccessable-inclucive(Tusa,1999) The notion of accessibility is documented inthe Arts Counsil of England “great Art and Culture for everyone” StategicFramework for 2010-2020. The foundamental porpruse for Cultural Sector isproviding accessibility.
Achieving great art for everyone, and toprovide institutionals with an independent, expert view about how to shape andplace their new responsibilities at the heart of our mission. In that wayvaluewill be added toAs guards of public investments ACE.” We conductresearch, create partnerships, and promote the value of arts and culture. Weknow that arts and culture play an important role in local regeneration, inattracting tourists, in the development of talent and innovation, in improvinghealth and well-being, and in delivering essential services. We will continueto deepen our understanding of the impact of arts and culture in this country andwill map out and reinforce the connections between publically-funded arts andculture and the wider creative economy.
“The CultureWhite Paper with #ourculture Ifyou believe in publicly-funded arts and culture as I passionately do, then youmust also believe in equality of access, attracting all, and welcoming all. RtHon David Cameron MP– Policydrivers since 1997– Access,in ensuring that the greatest number of people have the opportunity toexperience work of quality. – Excellence,in ensuring that governmental support is used to underpin the best, and themost innovative, and the things that would not otherwise find a voice.
– Education,in ensuring that creativity is not extinguished by the formal education systemand beyond.– Economicvalue, in ensuring that the full economic and employment impact of thewhole range of the creative industries is acknowledged and assisted bygovernment. – Notethis was initiated 97-2000 – the themesare still relevant– ACE2018-2020 – Goal1: Excellence – “Excellence is thriving and celebrated in the arts, museumsand libraries”– Goal2: For everyone – “Everyone has the opportunity to experience and to beinspired by the arts, museums and libraries”– Goal3: Resilience & sustainability – “The arts, museums and libraries areresilient and environmentally sustainable”– Goal4: Diversity & skills – “The leadership and workforce in the arts,museums and libraries are diverse and appropriately skilled”– Goal5: Children & young people – “Every child and young person has theopportunity to experience the richness of the arts, museums and libraries” Other foundamental note comes from (…..
) mentioning thetwin purpose of Arts Council England as it is stated in the strategic frameworkfor the decade 2010 to 2020, Artsaccessible for everyone and supporting excellence. That’s quite a paradoxcombination and arises issues of high art and popular artTargetting to achive those impacts Ace sets as main goals Some thoughts on how to achieve accessibility in its fullmeaning Something new in the HorizonNowdays, the most accessible way for people to engageto the arts is the digital technologies as a medium have contributed to a moremassive consumption of cultural products and have enabled a broader access tothe world of art. As stated in ‘UK Digital Strategy 2017′ Policy Paper,’technology has the potential to bring arts and culture to new audiences’. Thismeans that technology paves the way for a better collaboration between culturalorganisations and their partners, and helps them reach more audiences. In otherwords, the latest technological developments in the field of Arts and Culturehave allowed traditionally under-represented groups and people coming fromlower income households to have access and enjoy cultural products.
Digitalinclusion is a vital social and cultural topic today, as it is widely acceptedthat digital technology – the internet, smartphones and tablets – provides theopportunity to increase people’s independence and make them feel more includedin society (Salman, 2015). to the Arts Council of England ‘Great Art andCulture for Everyone: 10-year Strategic Framework 2010-2020’, there is aspecial reference to how digital technologies can enable a broader access tothe art world. The main argument is that great opportunities flow from thecultural sector and everyone should be able to take advantage of them. The goalof these policy papers is to increase public participation across all thecultural sectors, especially among communities who currently do not benefitfrom many cultural opportunities – e.g.
disadvantaged/socially isolated groups,people coming from a lower socio-economic background, disabled people, etc. –which is only possible through strong leadership and better collaborationacross the cultural sectors….as a potential broader public access to arts.However, the digital platform does not grant greater accessibility by itself.This is something that policy regulators, business owners and audiences need tobe cautious and aware of T Jowell, Government and the Value of Culture