The shaping of a country’s cultural policy depends on a
great deal of the way we perceive and we mean culture.

The word “culture” originates from the Latin verb colore
which meant the cultivation of the solid. Cicero for the first time used it
metaphorically as “cultivating the soul”. In the later Renaissance
the Humanists inaugurate its metaphorical use as “cultivating the
mind”

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Culture is in line with the values ??of spiritual and
aesthetic cultivation, cultural tradition and identity, is positively charged,
as it is linked to its elevation the spirituality of man and opposed to the
sweeping materialism and the boon of technological culture. The views expressed
by the American anthropologist F. Boas and the English historian E. Thompson in
the mid-20sTh century leads to a new concept of culture, according to which the
mobility of social groups, within which a culture develops, is an important
factor that makes it dynamic azz
d internally heterogeneous. Culture refers to
“the whole field of meaning, as it is a radically heterogeneous field
because of the wide variety of social experiences, roles and relationships that
make up social life

According to the statement by the Mondiacult of the World
Conference on Political Policy held in 1982 in Mexico: “With its
widespread culture, today represents the totality of the different mental,
intellectual and material, mental and emotional elements that characterize a
society or a social group. It includes, in addition to letters and craftsmen,
the way of life, the basic human rights, the system of values, the traditions
and the doctrines. …. In its narrow sense, it means mainly the whole values
??and the cognitive and aesthetic habits of a community, and  under this prism includes cultural heritage,
the arts, literature and thought movements. ”

The theoreticians in general moved on two semantic axes to
define the concept of culture. According to the former, the word refers to all
philosophical, musical, literary or artistic creations and refers to the
cultivated or wise or humanistic culture, which is located in highly processed
products of knowledge and art. The second axis is the one that refers to all
practices and knowledge, intellectual and material, and is closer to the
approach of anthropologists. This level includes the ways that one feels,
thinks and does (eg food, clothing, behavioral patterns, communication codes,
etc.)

The C18th German Gottfried Herder constructed the academic
and romantic concept of culture as civilisation

This is heavily Eurocentric and steeped in the philosophy
and mythology of Europe as the cradle of civilisation

 

Later in the C19th Mathew Arnold and his peers appropriated
the term in a more restrictive manner

              It meant
intellectual refinement, the best that has been produced.

              He termed
this ‘high’ culture which became shaped by its opposition to ‘popular’ or ‘low’
culture

the shared values and patterns of behaviour that
characterise different social groups and communities’ Ken Robinson’s All Our
Futures

s. The Department for Culture, Media and Sport’s (DCMS’s)
website admits ‘There is no official government definition of “culture”.’5

Many within the arts understand culture as the best that has
been produced within specific art forms and this still underpins the thinking
of the Arts Council

 

The narrower ‘high’ art understanding that recognises the
best as enculturation into specific Eurocentric canons is intentionally elitist

The canons have to be maintained and reconstructed

They are dependent on cultural gatekeepers who determine
what is the best – who and what determines these people

The culture in the art

“If art is to nourish the roots of our culture, society
must set the artist free to follow his vision wherever it takes him.” –John
F. Kennedy

 

Art is culture and is also formed by culture!

There is not such thing as high low art anymore ,there is an
important initiative/turn to cultural democracy. The diversity of nowadays
culture demands equal access to culture for every member of the society. In
order this to be ensured, the
role of police makers and governance is vital!

Through
cultural democracy The
concept is that ‘culture’ as expressed through the arts in the western
canon and democratisation is only achieved through increasing people’s access,
which requires education into its symbolic codes and greater exposure to it.

 

That need
seems to be understood by British
Cultural Policy makers that in their attempt to democratization of
culture …(White Paper) Great Culture for everyone!….So through the strategic
plan try to embrace diversity and and accessibility in the Arts For everybody
in the society. The arts can help individuals and communities
by bringing people together and removing social barriers. The UK government is
working to support the arts community to give access to all, improve wellbeing
in the UK and boost the UK’s economy.GOV.UK

 

 

 

 

Arts
Council England is the the
non?departmental public body responsible for the majority of arts funding in
England in corporation with
British Governance since….  Are funding
arts. But the plethora of art creation in order to be controlled in economic
terms.  The great demand for public
funding has emerged the need of “public value”. In terms of what is worth
funding/supporting!  The innovation that
pv. Its contribution is that sets the public needs and preferences in the
central role of arbiter,,,,

Public
value is

While analysing ways to accomplish public value, one of the
main barrier detected in the public domain was the failure to eavesdrop
society’s heartbeat when establishing priorities.  And who could be better at pointing out the
needs of society than society itself? Public value hence is reached by a
methodology that includes society as a key player, and that emphases on the
process for achieving public value as much as in the value itself.

The notion of public value was first introduced by (Moore,1995)
in his book Creating public value, as as suggestion about bublic services
reform, in contradiction to “New Public Management”. Moore approaches public
value as the equivalent of shareholder value in public management. ….  How public services can contribute to public
good.  The Moores approach about public
value was embraced by Brithish Cultural Policy as an attempt to offer  that addreesing to

 

(Kelly et al,2002) assess public value as a way of thinking
about the aims and the performance of public policy and describes it as a
yardstick for the evaluation of activities produced  or supported by government or provided by
other nongovernmental bodies but sponsored by government.

 

In2000 during a conference called “Valuating Culture” hosted
by Demos, the think tank, the notion of public value extended to the Culture
domain as a discussion whether the publicly funded art and cultural
organizations should adopt intstrumenal criteria in order to take the money. A year
after Tessa Jowell, DCMS Secretery publishes a report  where she underlines the need of a new
language able to capture the full range of values articulated through the
culture. As a response to that Holden proposed “Cultural Value”.

 

Public value in a democracy acquires value when it has value
for the public. According to (Holden,2004) The public value in the arts context
gives the opportunity to “turna right to art from an aspiration into a reality”
and that means that we might change the way we fund culture….

For public value in the cultural sector Holden, creates his
own model named Cultural Value where he distinguishes three kinds of value in
publicly funded culture; the intrinsic value , the instrumental value and the
institutional value. These values work in a dialectic between cultural
profetionals , politicians, policy makers and the public.

The intrinsic value is defined by Holden as “the set
of values that relate t the subjective experience of culture intellectually,
emotionally and spiritually (Holden,2006). Intrinsic value is shaped by individual
preferences,but preferences are not standing still during the past o time,
thecan change unpredicted. But the difficulty in measuring that value leads
often to be neglected by policy debate.intrinsic value is integral part of
culture. What make people cherish the arts? e, Capturing Cultural Value
suggested that Professor David Throsby’s categorisations of historical, social,
symbolic, aesthetic and spiritual value would be a good starting point, because
they break down a nebulous concept into more manageable terms expressed in
everyday language. (Holden,2006)

The instrumental value has to do with the achievement of
economic and social goals and usually (but not always) measured by figures.
This kind of value tends to be translated with terms such as “outcome”,” impact”,
“output”. And is related with politicians and policy makers inside the cultural
market by (Holden,2006) this value is related to the profesionals and Holden
thinks that instrumental value provides inaquate account of the Value of
Culture.

Institutional value is about the role of Cultural
organasations in the creation of value for the public. They function as the
intermediaries between public and the political representatives/politicians and
the also cutribute to the creation and the deconstruction of what has value for
the public(? Cultrural organisations function as mediators between institutions
and the public and also as creators of what the public values. Trust,
transparency and fairness should be produced by cultural organisations in their
dealing with the public, in order that to be achieced.(holden,20000)At that
point it’s a matter of high importance how institutions wille generate their
values through their mission.

The challenge of measurement

The measurement in intrinsic value can be appoached by
personal testimony, qualitive surveys and critical reviews but since it’s a
matter of individual intake its a problematic area to measure. More
specifically the way, that through cultural experiences society can be affected
or desirable social achievements can be accomplished, is quite uncertain
(holden,2006). Furthermore should in intrinsic value be involved standards  issues, and what the role of proffetional on
shapinig or not those standards? At tha point Holden

The problems of ‘capturing’ instrumental value recognised in
Capturing Cultural Valu(Holden 20000)e as well as in texts by Selwood, Ellis,
Oakley, RAND, DCMS and Carey., The problems that seems to exist are the
following: a causal link between culture and a beneficial economic or social
outcome is difficult because of temporal remoteness, complexity of the
interaction, the context in which it takes place, and the multiplicity of other
factors impacting on the result.  There
is little in the way of longitudinal evidence to support correlation between
culture and its effects because cultural practice, the context in which it
takes place and policy goals are constantly shifting.  ‘Evidence’ is often confused with advocacy.
Cultural Value and the Crisis of Legitimacy 16 Demos  It is virtually impossible to prove that,
even if a cultural intervention works, it is the most direct and cost-effective
way of achieving a particular social or economic aim. Fundamentally these
problems exist because, when it comes to instrumental benefits, culture creates
potential rather than having a predictable effect. Nonetheless, in spite of the
difficulties with the evidence, much of the rationale for the public funding of
culture rests on an appeal to its effectiveness in achieving instrumental aims.
A clear example can be found in the agreement between Arts Council England and
the Local Government Association, which states that their joint approach to the
arts will focus on:  the creative economy  healthy communities  vital neighbourhoods  engaging young people.16 Capturing Cultural
Value argues that culture does have significant instrumental value, but that
instrumental value on its own does not give an adequate account of the value of
culture, and that, moreover, better methodologies need to be found to
demonstrate instrumental value in a convincing way.(holden,2006)

Instituitional value is evidenced through the feedback of
public, people close to cultural institution

§ 
… institutional value is related to the  techniques that orgs use to capure value targeting
their audience development The focus of ‘Not for the Likes of You’ has been on how a cultural organisation can become
accessible to a broad general audience by
changing its overall positioning and message, rather than just by
implementing targeted audience development schemes or projects(Smith,2004) when
we talk about access (or being
accessible) we mean access in its very broadest sense – not just physical
access but also psychological, emotional, intellectual, cultural and financial
access;

§ 
an organisation’s positioning
refers to the place it occupies in the minds of the public vis a vis the
alternatives available to them; and

§ 
the message is the way
in which that positioning is expressed to potential audiences and visitors.

 

Critiques

Besides the challenges that public value model faces in
terms of mesurament and the need of a new cultural value that will embrace the
totality of culture as notion and hence it wll be more stable established in
governace priorities, that modele although its still new, is facing some
remarkable critiques.(Keany,200000 )

The main concearn is the vague and diverse nature of public
preferences creates a huge difficulty in capuring. According to (Rogers,2003)
its tough to pursued the diverse ways in which public gives value to something
and the only way that makes I possible is through the democratic process. The
arbitur between opposing claim in a Democracy is the state.

Another worry expressed by (Grabtree,2004)is that the
concept is in jeopardy to become meaningless. He points out that the unclear
references about value,will deprive the power of public vlue as management
tool  towards  a soft -opera rationale. But In my opinion if
those unclear …references don’t become implicit that management tool will
probably be faulty.

Public Value (or Public Value Capital) then is the combined view
of the public about what they regard as valuable.

Talbot, 2006

 

Its all about access. Accessibility creates Value. Not physical
accessibility but intellectual and spiritual! But how can we engage the
audience in order to take the maximum access from art/cultural work. Especialy
individuals with shaped personalities-preferences (through their education,
experiences, etc) Simply we can’t. At least completely! But what we can do is
try to communicate the salutary effects of the art to young people. Education
is the key. Through that contact we encourage them to feel more confident in an
art space, to shape their preferences by accessing equaly all of their cultural
options.  But cultural focued education
doesn’t necesserely mean that all the artforms will be the same accessible to
all, maybe intelectualy yes. But the intrinsic value that is provided through
the spiritual experience is something that we cant accomplish, because we cant
control people preferees and that’s not the point.

 

Access and accessibility( in order sth to
became valuable for the public mast be accessible. But what is accessibility.

Accessibility can be physicaly, intellectual,
emotional and spriritual. Physicaly accessibility considers the public as a
subject with material substance having access to a set time-space. That nature
of accessibility as term, concludes matters of access of people with kinetical
disabilities wheelchairs, pushchairs and everything that might effect the
access to the building. Apart from that access, disabilities of mentality or in
general people with special needs,deaph, blind, dyslexic, dowm syndrome etc.
should have eqoual opportunities to cherice the arts. But besides disable
people physical accessibily has to to with how easy is the access to a place.
For example if somebody is leaving in a cottage in countryside Tate is not that
accessible. The transportation around a Cultural building also contributes to
its accessibility.

Moving
on to a more complex form of accessibility, intellectual accessibility comes
after we enter the building and reach the artpiece. While looking  it, how it affects as intellectually? The
part of intellectual accessibility relates to the intrisic character of
value  as its perceived by each
individual. It may dependes on the knowledge, the education and former
experiences that have may affect somebodys artistic preferences.

Another
fragment of acces , the emotional accessibility is related to the feelling that
an artistic experience creates to people. Feelling welcomed it is the demand
and the aim of UK institutional cultural policy. But how can we moderate the
feellings of others? Another blur area for research.

 

Finally,
the spiritual access is the most blur area of resherch, it is difficult to
define, let alone to measure. Margaret A. Burkhardt and
Mary Gail Nagai-Jacobson, Spirituality: living our connectedness,
Delmar Cengage Learning, p. xiii approaches it as Spiritual
experiences can include being connected to a larger reality, yielding a more
comprehensive self; joining with
other individuals or the human community;
with nature or the cosmos; or with the divine realm. Besides the
difficulty of measurement it

Arts as Arnold pput it has the same influence
to people as religion, an influence on good behaiviour but without being clear hot
ha is accomplished

Summarizing
accessibility is a relatively new concearn, from building access to to the
slippery word “perceived”. arts  can be
perceived as inclusive,welcoming everyone, or as exclusive , they have been
accused for that. In order to make art institiutionals
accessable-inclucive(Tusa,1999)

 

The notion of accessibility is documented in
the Arts Counsil of England “great Art and Culture for everyone” Stategic
Framework for 2010-2020. The foundamental porpruse for Cultural Sector is
providing accessibility. Achieving great art for everyone, and to
provide institutionals with an independent, expert view about how to shape and
place their new responsibilities at the heart of our mission. In that wayvalue
will be added to

As guards of public investments ACE.” We conduct
research, create partnerships, and promote the value of arts and culture. We
know that arts and culture play an important role in local regeneration, in
attracting tourists, in the development of talent and innovation, in improving
health and well-being, and in delivering essential services. We will continue
to deepen our understanding of the impact of arts and culture in this country and
will map out and reinforce the connections between publically-funded arts and
culture and the wider creative economy.”

The Culture
White Paper with #ourculture   If
you believe in publicly-funded arts and culture as I passionately do, then you
must also believe in equality of access, attracting all, and welcoming all. Rt
Hon David Cameron MP

–       Policy
drivers since 1997

–       Access,
in ensuring that the greatest number of people have the opportunity to
experience work of quality.

–       Excellence,
in ensuring that governmental support is used to underpin the best, and the
most innovative, and the things that would not otherwise find a voice.

–       Education,
in ensuring that creativity is not extinguished by the formal education system
and beyond.

–       Economic
value, in ensuring that the full economic and employment impact of the
whole range of the creative industries is acknowledged and assisted by
government.

–       Note
this was initiated 97-2000  – the themes
are still relevant

–       ACE
2018-2020

–       Goal
1: Excellence – “Excellence is thriving and celebrated in the arts, museums
and libraries”

–       Goal
2: For everyone – “Everyone has the opportunity to experience and to be
inspired by the arts, museums and libraries”

–       Goal
3: Resilience & sustainability – “The arts, museums and libraries are
resilient and environmentally sustainable”

–       Goal
4: Diversity & skills – “The leadership and workforce in the arts,
museums and libraries are diverse and appropriately skilled”

–       Goal
5: Children & young people – “Every child and young person has the
opportunity to experience the richness of the arts, museums and libraries”

 

 

Other foundamental note comes from (…..) mentioning the
twin purpose of Arts Council England as it is stated in the strategic framework
for the decade  2010 to 2020, Arts
accessible for everyone and supporting excellence. That’s quite a paradox
combination and arises issues of high art and popular art

Targetting to achive those impacts Ace sets as main goals

  

Some thoughts on how to achieve accessibility in its full
meaning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Something new in the Horizon

Nowdays, the most accessible way for people to engage
to the arts is the digital technologies as a medium have contributed to a more
massive consumption of cultural products and have enabled a broader access to
the world of art. As stated in ‘UK Digital Strategy 2017’ Policy Paper,
‘technology has the potential to bring arts and culture to new audiences’. This
means that technology paves the way for a better collaboration between cultural
organisations and their partners, and helps them reach more audiences. In other
words, the latest technological developments in the field of Arts and Culture
have allowed traditionally under-represented groups and people coming from
lower income households to have access and enjoy cultural products. Digital
inclusion is a vital social and cultural topic today, as it is widely accepted
that digital technology – the internet, smartphones and tablets – provides the
opportunity to increase people’s independence and make them feel more included
in society (Salman, 2015). to the Arts Council of England ‘Great Art and
Culture for Everyone: 10-year Strategic Framework 2010-2020’, there is a
special reference to how digital technologies can enable a broader access to
the art world. The main argument is that great opportunities flow from the
cultural sector and everyone should be able to take advantage of them. The goal
of these policy papers is to increase public participation across all the
cultural sectors, especially among communities who currently do not benefit
from many cultural opportunities – e.g. disadvantaged/socially isolated groups,
people coming from a lower socio-economic background, disabled people, etc. –
which is only possible through strong leadership and better collaboration
across the cultural sectors….as a potential broader public access to arts.
However, the digital platform does not grant greater accessibility by itself.
This is something that policy regulators, business owners and audiences need to
be cautious and aware of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

T Jowell, Government and the Value of Culture

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