The
study presented in this thesis form a relationship between soil chemical
properties throughout the years within Giant Miscanthus soil. Miscanthus is a perennial,
rhizomatous, giant grass that was originated from East Asia and now distributed
worldwide. This subtropical plant has C4 photosynthetic pathway and can be
grown in warm seasonal weather. These perennial
rhizomatous grasses are promising energy crops due to their high productivity,
low nutrient requirements, ecosystem services and great potential for C
mitigation (Lewandowski et al., 2003a; Rowe et al., 2009; Chum et al., 2011). Giant
Miscanthus has different needs for moisture, soil nutrient content, and the
amount of radiation it receives. The length of nutrient gradient, with the
relationship of different supplements introduces the impact of soil chemical
property accessibilities may impact the state of the reaction of the nutrients in
the soil of the Giant Miscanthus. Miscanthus is a favored perennial feedstock
for bioenergy in subtropical and temperate regions due to its high potential
productivity (Heaton et al., 2010; Lewandowski et al., 2003) and benefits with
regard to the carbon and greenhouse gas balance (Dondini et al., 2009; Hillier
et al., 2009).  This perennial crop became
a new addition to the American biomass crops, and was chosen by the project
BCAP (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) in the summer of 2011 to ensure the
planting of renewable biomass crops.  Biomass
for bioenergy is turning into an imperative alternative in Global Change
alleviation strategy. Research specialists have discovered that the Giant Miscanthus
enduring grass beats current biofuels sources by a considerable measure.
Utilizing Miscanthus as a feedstock for ethanol creation in the United States
could altogether lessen the real estate devoted to biofuels entire meeting
government biofuels generation objectives. In Mississippi researchers
recommends that a portion of the bioenergy yields in Giant Miscanthus can be
developed and keep a profitability even in soil with low soil chemical
properties. Soil chemical properties show how the chemical characteristics of
the soil. These concepts of soil chemical property associated with Giant Miscanthus
soil conducted within this project consist of soil organic matter, potential hydrogen
(pH), magnesium, calcium, potassium, Mehlich phosphorus, total nitrogen, total
carbon, exchange capacity, and summation cation exchange capacity.

According
to Jenny (1994), soil may be treated as an open system with components entering
or leaving the soil, including SOM. Soil organic matter (SOM) is known to
improve many soil properties such as soil structure, water holding capacity and
nutrient supply (Johnston et al. 2009). For this reason, SOM content is
commonly seen as the main indicator for soil fertility (Reeves 1997). Giant Miscanthus
is adapted to a wide range of soils, from sands to those with high organic
matter (Caslin, Finnan, and McCracken 2010).
Organic matter within Giant Miscanthus is composed of plant residue and microbial
biomass, which consists of many compounds that helps the nutrient of the plant.
Organic matter in the soil helps the structure and gives the soil the ability
to absorb water and hold its nutrients. There are many functions of organic matter
in soil. It provides food for micro-organisms living within the soil. Also, it
increases fertility as it possesses cations and hold nutrients in organic forms
and releases little nutrients for plant growth and uptake. Furthermore, organic
matter holds the soil particles together. When the leaves from the plant of the
Giant Miscanthus falls onto the ground it is decomposed into humus. Organic
matter releases many plant nutrients as it decomposed into the soil, including nitrogen
(N) and Phosphorus (P). This concept of organic matter benefits and holds a
great impact on Giant Miscanthus. Therefore, the practices of crop management contribute
to organic matter and its ways to enhance Giant Miscanthus nutrients includes; improvement
of the rooting system, improvement of the crop rotation and the system, and
maximizing its residues and management of the crop.

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Potential
Hydrogen (pH) is an important environmental factor affecting the uptake of
nutrients within the soil. The soil reaction is connected with more plant-soil
relations. The assurance of pH has progressed toward becoming a standard matter
in soils studies relating specifically or indirectly to the plant nutrients.
Information of soil acidity is helpful when evaluating soils because pH applies
an extremely solid impact on the solubility and accessibility of numerous
supplement components. It impacts nutrient take-up and root development, and it
controls the presence or action of numerous micro-organisms. Every year a soil
test should be taken prior to planting to determine the nutrient levels and pH at
the sites of the planting. Although, the best production can be expected from sites
that have well-drained soils with medium to high fertility (Heaton et al. 2011)
and pH between 5.5 to 7.5 (Caslin, Finnan, and McCracken 2010).  If necessary, adjust pH to between 6 to 8
(Heaton et. Al. 2011). Growth has been poor on soil with a pH greater than 8 (Caslin
2010).  In conclusion, Giant Miscanthus
grasses can grow in soil that has the potential pH between 5.5. and 7.5.

            Magnesium, Calcium, and potassium within
soil is an important potential for plant-food nutrients. Magnesium in soil
solution is equivalent with the exchangeable magnesium available for plants. Originally,
magnesium in soil comes from the decomposition of rock containing minerals such
as dolomite, brotite, and olivine. Once in the soil magnesium can be leached,
absorbed by living organism and by its surrounding particles. In the soils
exchangeable magnesium is important for determining the magnesium available for
in plants. Magnesium plays a huge role in photosynthesis because without it plants
begin to devalue chlorophyll in the old leaves. The uptake of magnesium by Giant
Miscanthus is by two main processes. Diffusion which moves magnesium ions from
high concentration zones to lower concentration zones and by passive uptake which
is driven by transpiration stream. Calcium plays an essential role in plant
growth and nutrition. As calcium helps maintain chemical balance in soil it reduces
soil salinity and also improves water penetration. Calcium also neutralizes
cell acids and plays a role in the removal of carbohydrates. Potassium plays second
role to nitrogen when it comes to nutrients needed for plants and soil. It is essential
plant nutrient and is required in large quantities for growth and reproduction of
plants. Potassium has plenty of roles such as potassium regulates the opening
and closing of stomata, photosynthesis, and regulates CO2 uptake.
Potassium also plays a role in the regulation of water in plants. The uptake of
water in plant roots and the lost through the stomata are affected by
potassium. This chemical property actives enzymes and the essential for the production
of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). In summary, magnesium, calcium, and potassium
plays major as secondary plant-food nutrients with the soil of the Giant
Miscanthus.

            Mehlich phosphorus and nitrogen
share similarities in chemical behavior throughout soil. Depending on the
regional climate, leaching of nutrients, especially nitrogen, can occur in late
winter/early spring or late fall. Soil erosion and associated nutrient losses,
specifically phosphorus, are alleviated with active crop growth during those
seasons (Kasper et al., 2008). Retaining these nutrients helps avoid the need
to replenish them for the subsequent main crop. To reduce losses of dissolved
phosphorus on highly erodible lands, cover crop effectiveness is critical to
reduce erosion (Kasper et al., 2008). Phosphorus is absorbed by plants in the
form of phosphates. Within plant metabolism it is considered an element of
nucleic acids, phospholipids, and many coenzymes. Phosphorus taken up by plants
from soil as phosphate and it is not reduced. In soils phosphorus occurs mainly
in inorganic form, bound to other metals such as Ca, Fe, or Al in water-insoluble
complexes.

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