The impact
of light sand is a polished, polished surface that, as a rule, expands sand
particles onto the concrete floor. This finish is considered a
“creamy-looking” surface and is the most popular choice for polished
floors and architectural floors.

·    
Salt & Pepper Finish

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The presence
of salt and pepper is a smooth and polished surface, which usually exposes a
fine-grained spray to the concrete floor. This finish is chosen more often to
give the appearance of the old surface. The cutting depth of the surface is
1/16 inches.

·     Medium Aggregate Finish

The average
exposure of the population as a whole ensures the greatest amount of the
average aggregate in a concrete floor with a low or no aggregate impact in
random places. Approximate cutting depth of the  surface is 1/8 of an inch.

·     Large Aggregate Finish

Large aggregate exposure is a more “cut” surface, which usually exposes the largest amount of the largest aggregate in the concrete floor. Finishing is preferable when the substrate has been planted using tuned aggregates. On some floors, including the restoration of the old concrete, there may be limitations in the depth of cut of the floor. The cutting depth is 1/4 inch.

 (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017, n.d.)

2.2
Horning

Burnishing
begins with a 50-grain resin pad, which is quite aggressive and can be used to
expose the small aggregate slightly. The scratches and grooves were left with a
50-grain resin pad.

Sanding
refers to smoothing and removing scratches and generally involves the use of
50, 100 and 200 grain discs.

A glossy
surface with a 200-gram pad is smooth, scratch-free and totally opaque or
glossy. There may be vortexes on the surface, but there are no deep scratches.
The injection usually takes place after the passage of 200 grains: a 200 grit
is not aggressive enough to cut into the concrete and open more holes, but a
200 grit is aggressive enough to cut the hardened mortar.

One aspect
of salt and pepper refers only to the exposed grains of sand. Often, this aspect
can be achieved by removing the cement cream with a 200-grained buffer in one
step, exposing the cement paste matrix.

 

2.3 Densifiers

 

The Densifiers are used to harden the concrete substrate. This
is useful in several aspects. Firstly, the harder cement is easier to polish
and creates a glossy finish. Secondly, a harder concrete substrate works better
as a flooring option. densifiers are complicated to understand but relatively
easy to use. The densifiers usually consist of lithium, potassium or sodium
silicate. The lithium, potassium or sodium portion of the chemical composition
is used to transfer the silicate to the concrete. When the silicate comes into
contact with calcium hydroxide, which is commonly known as free lime, located
within the concrete substrate, it transforms and creates a crystalline
structure. This crystalline structure helps to add resistance and abrasion
resistance to the concrete surface. When the densifier is added to the concrete
within the polishing process, it is best dictated by the concrete itself. If
the concrete is soft and porous, the use of a lot of densifiers throughout the
process would be very useful. This would help the polishing technician achieve
maximum refinement with diamond tools. However, if the concrete substrate has a
high structural strength, it has been finished on a hard and dense surface, so
a small additional densifier would have been required. Most densifiers react
with cement in the same way creating a harder and dense surface. (Harris., n.d.)

2.4
Polishing

Concrete
processing consists of several steps, but grindding and polishing are the best
known. “Polishing”, but “polishing is a separate task”
separate from grinding. If you are brilliant, you will have to work on several
steps to achieve it.

The highest
level of cement, the glossy appearance is strong, durable and full of clarity.
It has a reflective appearance and a high-end look.

 

2.4 Gloss Level

Depending on
the diamond sand used to polish a concrete floor, various levels of gloss can
be achieved. You can expect to reach the level.

·       
Level 1 (Flat / Ground)

In general,
you can achieve a level 1 floor sanding by stopping under the 100-grain bond:
when you look directly at the ground, it will look a little foggy with little
or no clarity or reflection.

·       
Level
2 (Satin / Honed)

A level 2
polished enamel is obtained by stopping at 400 resinous bonds, producing a
glossy finish. When you look directly at the finished floor and at about 100
feet, you can begin to see a slight reflection on your head. This grain level
produces a low gloss matt finish.

·       
Level
3 (Semi-polished)

A level 3
sanding is achieved by switching to an 800-grit abrasive or higher. The surface
will have a much higher brightness than the level 2 finish, and you’ll start to
see good light reflectivity. At a distance of 30 to 50 feet, the floor will
clearly reflect lateral and top lighting.

·       
Level
4 (Highly Polished)

This level
of brightness produces a high degree of brightness, so that when you place
yourself directly on the surface, you can see your reflection with total
clarity. Furthermore, the terrain seems to be wet when viewed from different
strategic points. A level 4 sanding is achieved by switching to a 3,000-grained
adhesion resin diamond or by polishing the floor with a high-speed burner
equipped with special polishing pads. (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017,
n.d.)

 

2.5 Colouring

Figure 4 – Different coloring choices (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017,
n.d.)

 

· integral –considered environmentally friendly and performed at the time

·  
Integral
by sowing a cement / pigment mixture in the upper part during power trowel finishing

· Penetrating Water Based Dyes – Made
during the polishing process and considered environmentally friendly.

· Penetrating Solvent Based Dyes – Made during the polishing process and is not considered environmentally
friendly.

· Penetrating Acid Stain – Made during the polishing process and is not considered environmentally friendly.

·                 
Penetrating
color surface sealants that also form a film and produce a firmer color.
Considered ecological. (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017,
n.d.)

 

 

2.6 Comparison

3 Conclusion

In flooring, modern world are
expecting rapid constructing, less time consuming and more economical,
aesthetic and less maintaining systems. Because all are in very busy life. Also,
there are big competition in flooring industry. So, it is necessary to do a
comparative on concrete polishing and traditional flooring systems. 

The research is to be carried out to
overcome the problems mentioned in above. So as a new emerge to the flooring
industry people should identify what are the defects and what are the benefits
of this. Then considering more facts, we can take a conclusion of concrete flooring
is more suitable for the industry or not.

 

4 Acknowledgement

The authors is grateful to the research supervisor
Dr. Lesly Ekanayake for the guidance and to the colleagues for the help.

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