The impactof light sand is a polished, polished surface that, as a rule, expands sandparticles onto the concrete floor. This finish is considered a”creamy-looking” surface and is the most popular choice for polishedfloors and architectural floors.· Salt & Pepper FinishThe presenceof salt and pepper is a smooth and polished surface, which usually exposes afine-grained spray to the concrete floor. This finish is chosen more often togive the appearance of the old surface. The cutting depth of the surface is1/16 inches.· Medium Aggregate FinishThe averageexposure of the population as a whole ensures the greatest amount of theaverage aggregate in a concrete floor with a low or no aggregate impact inrandom places. Approximate cutting depth of the surface is 1/8 of an inch.· Large Aggregate FinishLarge aggregate exposure is a more “cut” surface, which usually exposes the largest amount of the largest aggregate in the concrete floor.
Finishing is preferable when the substrate has been planted using tuned aggregates. On some floors, including the restoration of the old concrete, there may be limitations in the depth of cut of the floor. The cutting depth is 1/4 inch. (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017, n.d.)2.2Horning Burnishingbegins with a 50-grain resin pad, which is quite aggressive and can be used toexpose the small aggregate slightly. The scratches and grooves were left with a50-grain resin pad.
Sandingrefers to smoothing and removing scratches and generally involves the use of50, 100 and 200 grain discs.A glossysurface with a 200-gram pad is smooth, scratch-free and totally opaque orglossy. There may be vortexes on the surface, but there are no deep scratches.The injection usually takes place after the passage of 200 grains: a 200 gritis not aggressive enough to cut into the concrete and open more holes, but a200 grit is aggressive enough to cut the hardened mortar.One aspectof salt and pepper refers only to the exposed grains of sand. Often, this aspectcan be achieved by removing the cement cream with a 200-grained buffer in onestep, exposing the cement paste matrix. 2.3 Densifiers The Densifiers are used to harden the concrete substrate.
Thisis useful in several aspects. Firstly, the harder cement is easier to polishand creates a glossy finish. Secondly, a harder concrete substrate works betteras a flooring option. densifiers are complicated to understand but relativelyeasy to use.
The densifiers usually consist of lithium, potassium or sodiumsilicate. The lithium, potassium or sodium portion of the chemical compositionis used to transfer the silicate to the concrete. When the silicate comes intocontact with calcium hydroxide, which is commonly known as free lime, locatedwithin the concrete substrate, it transforms and creates a crystallinestructure. This crystalline structure helps to add resistance and abrasionresistance to the concrete surface. When the densifier is added to the concretewithin the polishing process, it is best dictated by the concrete itself. Ifthe concrete is soft and porous, the use of a lot of densifiers throughout theprocess would be very useful. This would help the polishing technician achievemaximum refinement with diamond tools.
However, if the concrete substrate has ahigh structural strength, it has been finished on a hard and dense surface, soa small additional densifier would have been required. Most densifiers reactwith cement in the same way creating a harder and dense surface. (Harris., n.d.)2.4PolishingConcreteprocessing consists of several steps, but grindding and polishing are the bestknown. “Polishing”, but “polishing is a separate task”separate from grinding.
If you are brilliant, you will have to work on severalsteps to achieve it.The highestlevel of cement, the glossy appearance is strong, durable and full of clarity.It has a reflective appearance and a high-end look. 2.4 Gloss LevelDepending onthe diamond sand used to polish a concrete floor, various levels of gloss canbe achieved. You can expect to reach the level.· Level 1 (Flat / Ground)In general,you can achieve a level 1 floor sanding by stopping under the 100-grain bond:when you look directly at the ground, it will look a little foggy with littleor no clarity or reflection.
· Level2 (Satin / Honed)A level 2polished enamel is obtained by stopping at 400 resinous bonds, producing aglossy finish. When you look directly at the finished floor and at about 100feet, you can begin to see a slight reflection on your head. This grain levelproduces a low gloss matt finish.· Level3 (Semi-polished)A level 3sanding is achieved by switching to an 800-grit abrasive or higher. The surfacewill have a much higher brightness than the level 2 finish, and you’ll start tosee good light reflectivity. At a distance of 30 to 50 feet, the floor willclearly reflect lateral and top lighting.· Level4 (Highly Polished)This levelof brightness produces a high degree of brightness, so that when you placeyourself directly on the surface, you can see your reflection with totalclarity. Furthermore, the terrain seems to be wet when viewed from differentstrategic points.
A level 4 sanding is achieved by switching to a 3,000-grainedadhesion resin diamond or by polishing the floor with a high-speed burnerequipped with special polishing pads. (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017, n.d.) 2.5 ColouringFigure 4 – Different coloring choices (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017, n.d.) · integral –considered environmentally friendly and performed at the time· Integralby sowing a cement / pigment mixture in the upper part during power trowel finishing· Penetrating Water Based Dyes – Madeduring the polishing process and considered environmentally friendly.
· Penetrating Solvent Based Dyes – Made during the polishing process and is not considered environmentallyfriendly.· Penetrating Acid Stain – Made during the polishing process and is not considered environmentally friendly.· Penetratingcolor surface sealants that also form a film and produce a firmer color.Considered ecological. (polished-concrete-the-complete-guide-2017, n.d.) 2.6 Comparison 3 ConclusionIn flooring, modern world areexpecting rapid constructing, less time consuming and more economical,aesthetic and less maintaining systems.
Because all are in very busy life. Also,there are big competition in flooring industry. So, it is necessary to do acomparative on concrete polishing and traditional flooring systems. The research is to be carried out toovercome the problems mentioned in above. So as a new emerge to the flooringindustry people should identify what are the defects and what are the benefitsof this.
Then considering more facts, we can take a conclusion of concrete flooringis more suitable for the industry or not. 4 AcknowledgementThe authors is grateful to the research supervisorDr. Lesly Ekanayake for the guidance and to the colleagues for the help.