The XX century gave a tremendous boost not just toarcheological illustrations, but to archaeology itself, which meant that freshideas were implemented.

The new concept of illustrations, with the precisecognizance of the idea of the illustration, is not just about representing toinformation, but also taking into account the ways of its portrayal. The job ofthe illustrator is to be broad and opened in the approach to illustration: thepeople are the one who directs the style of drawing. What that means is, thatthe more economical and provocative the drawing is, this mirrors the audience’swants. In pursuit of the requirements of the public, the illustrator has totransfer the most of information archeologist can, as precisely andscrupulously as possible, using the ubiquitous practices if such are possibleto implement and are relevant. If the design of the illustration along with theformat and the use of symbols including shades, so that it not only portraysthe information but aesthetically attractive, this will be the impressiveaddition: as the aesthetically satisfying illustration, that failed to meet thevital needs will blunder as an archaeological illustration. Arguably, lightingis considered the most important component in archaeological illustration. Evenif the room for drawing is illuminated well, purchasing a professional lamp,which is made for the utilization with a board for painting, is a good idea,however, a normal adjustable table lamp that will make the drawing is lighter.

Nevertheless, buying the appropriate light equipment is important, not only youcan save lots of time, but also, using appropriate lamp could help you to avoidmaking mistakes, which are usually caused by bad lighting. The key point aboutdrawing relics is to put the lamplight from the top left corner (Fig. 1,1a).Moreover, it is vital to use right shades. Patterns of shading vary a lot,however, the simpler, the shading is, the better (Fig. 2). The most usedtechniques are the use of dotes (Fig.3), using a diagonal line, called hatching(Fig.

4) and using the lines, which cross together, to form a lattice pattern(Fig.5). Nonetheless, shading is mainly utilized to highlight rounded surfacesand remodeling. When it is usually.

employed, the source of light should becoming from the top left of the illustration to ensure that all projections aredepicted by shading around the lower right, and yet depressions are highlightedwith shading towards the top left. Pretty much every material carries thedistinct drawing and also shading methods. As a result, for you to deliver thesuitable illustration it is crucial to assess the material of the artifact.

Bones are typically drawn with shaded views or simply unshaded outline drawings.Provided the drawing of bone artifacts are shaded, after that stippled (Fig.6), or as a mixture of stipples with lines. (Fig. 7) In case, the metal objectneeds to undertake the preservation procedure, it needs to be drawn before it,as a mean of safety. All the iron sketches have to be done using x-rays, ifpossible, and there are four distinct ways to draw the objects. Shaded parts ofthe object with all the rust and corrosion, could be drawn and sections blackedin (Fig 8), nonetheless, from time to time, the density of the outer corrosionremains not shaded in the particular parts of the drawing.In archaeologicalillustration there are general drawing requirements: 1) accuracy 2) clarity 3)informative content 4) sameness (the same layout of objects on the sheet andthe technique of drawing).

The result of meeting these requirements is theconvenient reading of images and the possibility to get the completeinformation about each illustrated object.  This coursework is based on the ‘Journal of the County LouthArchaeological and Historical Society, Vol. 23, No. 3’ (1995) from page 329-335that is published by County Louth Archaeological and History Society. Theexcavation was conducted by the team of the Irish Underwater  Archaeological Research Team (I.U.

A.R.T). Theunderwater excavation took place in October in 1992, the aim of it was tocollect the information about the archeological relics. Divers decided to usemetal-detectors and to employ visual approach. In the Journal there are justfive figures with illustrated finds there. The first figure (Fig. 9) depictscomposite objects: metal and bone.

Human and animal bones are not commonlydrawn if there is no testimony for artefact manufacture. The drawn bone hasquite grainy texture, thus there was no great manufacture applied to it, as itrough parts can be easily identified on the illustrated bone. This detaileddrawing of the surface of the bone and metal can be used to identify the grainor its natural characteristics and human modification of it due to the humanactivity. Furthermore, the illustration shows thickness of both parts of theitem, thus with no description the length and thickness of it can be easilyrecognised due to the scale under the drawing.

This illustration  gives the full picture of materials ofobjects, as the metal part of the object is drawn using stipples (Fig. 10)  that are thicker due to the change of theshape of the metal, which is relatively smooth in comparison to the bone, that hasharsher texture with quite big holes in it. The bone is drawn with dots andhorizontal lines, that gives the sense of length of the bone. The compositemetal and bone is most likely modern. The illustration gives the idea that thisitem was possibly used and made  by afarmer then discarded. Whereas, these composite objects do not have anyarchaeological significance, therefore the illustration of it does not present the data of the excavation dueto its archaeological unimportance. There is another archaeologicalillustration of the iron knife blade and handle (Fig 11).

The knife was foundIn a poor condition as it is corroded. The knife is drawn in a dottedtechnique, highlighting corroded parts with a thicker stipples , thus there isa full insight of the texture of the object. This means that illustrationprovides enough information to recognise the material, its texture andcondition of it. Notwithstanding that the illustration is well drawn, there areevident visual drawbacks such as: no identification of the blade on thedrawing, therefore without any description in the report it is complicated torecognise the blade, that is also depicted on the illustration.  Another mistake on that illustration is thatthere is no scale that would help to understand the size of objects, thus theviewer will not be able to get the full picture about the iron knife. As thereport says the iron peg was possibly a part of the canal between 1748 and1800, therefore for archaeologists it has no significance. The last threeobjects are cannon balls (Fig 12,13,14) that were used from around blacked incorroded parts.

There is a scale under the (Fig 12) and (Fig 13) that equals10cm, but this scale is useless for these drawings as it is located right inthe middle between drawings (Fig 15), thus the viewer cannot use this scale toget the right size of objects. Whereas, drawings shows thickness of thesecannons. This means that these drawings can be easily used by otherarchaeologists to analyse these objects due to its detailed illustration oftexture and shape. These cannons are depicted in a stipple technique and usingoutline lines in order to highlight shapes. However, the lighting is totallywrong as there are shadows that usually are drawn when there is a light fromthe top left.

Figure 14 is the most inaccurate with overly thickened outlines,that  creates quite distorted view.Nevertheless, these cannons are important objects valued by archaeologists asthey are associated with the Battle of the Boyne that took place in July in1690 from 8 am and 12 noon. These illustrations helps to demonstrate the waythese cannot were used and how the corrosion destroyed some parts of it.

Thismeans that illustration provides the information that can be more detailed thanthe photograph taken of the object, as texture, might not be fully seen, due tothe camera flashlight and flatness that can be created by the camera.

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