Thegood thing in the memory studies could help to remember every details in thepast that could solved the problem that happen in the past to make more clearedfor us to understand the historical analysis.

In this field we can get thesources of information useful for exploring social history, cultural history,linguistics, memory, and other topics. Just like happen in holocaust in germanythey study using the memory of the survivor on the holocaust.  Memory studies could help to remembering traumaticepisodes of the past .

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Memory Studies witnesed the different problems in thepast of the person or history, that could help to study the past. Most studiesof mediated memory tend to focus on elite-news media coverage of extreme eventssuch as wars, political revolutions, assassinations etc., and the field has aclose relationship to Holocaust studies (Kitch, 2008). “Although no consensusexists either within or across disciplines on the very definition of collectivememory and its ownership, there is agreement that such memory is shareableamong members of a social group or community, be it a nation, an institution, areligious group, or a family” (Wang, 2008, p.

305). Memorystudies is thus a multidisciplinary field which began with individual memory growingoutward to focus on broader dimensions of social memory and the politics ofpublic remembering, especially those channelled through communications media.The focus has generally been on “how these forms of remembering operate ascollective representations of the past, how they constitute a range of culturalresources for social and historical identities, and how they privilegeparticular readings of the past and subordinate others” (Keightley andPickering, 2013) .

  Sturken(1997, 2008) uses the term cultural memory as memory shared outside formalhistorical discourse but imbued with cultural meaning. “Cultural memory as aterm implies not only that memories are often produced and reproduced through 4cultural forms, but also the kind of circulation that exists between personalmemories and cultural memories” (Sturken 2008, p.76). Fentress and Wickham(1992) use the term social memory. “Critics who charge that ‘collective memory’over-totalizes prefer a proliferation of more specific terms to capture theongoing contest over images of the past: official memory, vernacular memory,public memory, popular memory, local memory, family memory, historical memory,cultural memory etc.

” (Olick and Robbins 2008, p.112). The importance of thememory study to remembering the historical moment of the past, that explaindifferent happen in the society. This study shared the understandings of thepast  show the real events in the past toallows it to make claims about the past, present, and future. The memory studyabout in the holocaust survivor explain a psychological and emotional milieu ofthe struggle for survival in the holocaust. This memory study explain how thepast affects the generational society in different life living inside of thesociety. In researching painful pasts specific techniques can be used to elicitmemory, e.g.

taking photographs as vehicles for the remembering process. Thesekinds of stories are more than chronological descriptions and provide anevaluative and interpretive framework – memory is socially constructed ineveryday storytelling that is shaped by cultural narrative frames (ibid). The’cultural memoryscape’ may be understood as comprising multiple sites of memoryconnected by a particular associational logic (e.

g. national, ethnic, religious,village, etc.). Memoryscapes include a plurality of different forms of mnemonicphenomena, ranging from individual acts of remembrance to transnationalcontexts (Keightley and Pickering, 2013).

Shaping and remembering the past ofthe society could help to organize every pieces of evidence and show the realevents using the historical memories that connect everything in the past. Roedigerand Wertsch (2008, p.19) argue that memory studies is too broad a field to haveoverarching or unifying theories. They write that “memory studies has a longpast but its real history is short. In fact, unless and until proper methodsand theories are developed to lead to a coherent field, memory studies as aproper discipline may still be awaiting its birth”.

  “Culture and individualmemory are constantly produced through, and mediated by, the technologies ofmemory. The question of mediation is thus central to the way in which memory isconceived in the fields of study of visual culture, cultural studies and mediastudies” (Sturken, 2008). Kansteiner (2002) further argues that collectivememory studies have not sufficiently conceptualised collective memories asdistinctive from individual memory; that collective memory studies has not paidattention to the problem of reception (in terms of methods and sources) andthus cannot illuminate the sociological basis of historical representations.


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