good thing in the memory studies could help to remember every details in the
past that could solved the problem that happen in the past to make more cleared
for us to understand the historical analysis. In this field we can get the
sources of information useful for exploring social history, cultural history,
linguistics, memory, and other topics. Just like happen in holocaust in germany
they study using the memory of the survivor on the holocaust.  Memory studies could help to remembering traumatic
episodes of the past . Memory Studies witnesed the different problems in the
past of the person or history, that could help to study the past. Most studies
of mediated memory tend to focus on elite-news media coverage of extreme events
such as wars, political revolutions, assassinations etc., and the field has a
close relationship to Holocaust studies (Kitch, 2008). “Although no consensus
exists either within or across disciplines on the very definition of collective
memory and its ownership, there is agreement that such memory is shareable
among members of a social group or community, be it a nation, an institution, a
religious group, or a family” (Wang, 2008, p.305). Memory
studies is thus a multidisciplinary field which began with individual memory growing
outward to focus on broader dimensions of social memory and the politics of
public remembering, especially those channelled through communications media.
The focus has generally been on “how these forms of remembering operate as
collective representations of the past, how they constitute a range of cultural
resources for social and historical identities, and how they privilege
particular readings of the past and subordinate others” (Keightley and
Pickering, 2013) .  Sturken
(1997, 2008) uses the term cultural memory as memory shared outside formal
historical discourse but imbued with cultural meaning. “Cultural memory as a
term implies not only that memories are often produced and reproduced through 4
cultural forms, but also the kind of circulation that exists between personal
memories and cultural memories” (Sturken 2008, p.76). Fentress and Wickham
(1992) use the term social memory. “Critics who charge that ‘collective memory’
over-totalizes prefer a proliferation of more specific terms to capture the
ongoing contest over images of the past: official memory, vernacular memory,
public memory, popular memory, local memory, family memory, historical memory,
cultural memory etc.” (Olick and Robbins 2008, p.112). The importance of the
memory study to remembering the historical moment of the past, that explain
different happen in the society. This study shared the understandings of the
past  show the real events in the past to
allows it to make claims about the past, present, and future. The memory study
about in the holocaust survivor explain a psychological and emotional milieu of
the struggle for survival in the holocaust. This memory study explain how the
past affects the generational society in different life living inside of the
society. In researching painful pasts specific techniques can be used to elicit
memory, e.g. taking photographs as vehicles for the remembering process. These
kinds of stories are more than chronological descriptions and provide an
evaluative and interpretive framework – memory is socially constructed in
everyday storytelling that is shaped by cultural narrative frames (ibid). The
‘cultural memoryscape’ may be understood as comprising multiple sites of memory
connected by a particular associational logic (e.g. national, ethnic, religious,
village, etc.). Memoryscapes include a plurality of different forms of mnemonic
phenomena, ranging from individual acts of remembrance to transnational
contexts (Keightley and Pickering, 2013). Shaping and remembering the past of
the society could help to organize every pieces of evidence and show the real
events using the historical memories that connect everything in the past. Roediger
and Wertsch (2008, p.19) argue that memory studies is too broad a field to have
overarching or unifying theories. They write that “memory studies has a long
past but its real history is short. In fact, unless and until proper methods
and theories are developed to lead to a coherent field, memory studies as a
proper discipline may still be awaiting its birth”.  “Culture and individual
memory are constantly produced through, and mediated by, the technologies of
memory. The question of mediation is thus central to the way in which memory is
conceived in the fields of study of visual culture, cultural studies and media
studies” (Sturken, 2008). Kansteiner (2002) further argues that collective
memory studies have not sufficiently conceptualised collective memories as
distinctive from individual memory; that collective memory studies has not paid
attention to the problem of reception (in terms of methods and sources) and
thus cannot illuminate the sociological basis of historical representations.


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