“The Effect of
Advertisement Frequency on the Advertisement Attitude-The controlled Effects of
Brand Image and Spokesperson’s Credibility”



Chih-Chung et al. (2012). The Effect of Advertisement Frequency on the
Advertisement Attitude-The controlled Effects of Brand Image and Spokespersons
Credibility. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 57, pp.352-359. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09/1197

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 In the competitive world of business,
Advertisement is one of the greatest medium of communication between the
enterprises and its consumers. To strengthen the effect of the advertisement,
enterprises must select an endorser with a great amount of credibility.  The researchers in this study attempted to
examine what can affect the consumers’ attitude. Basically, the whole study
revolved around four things, the brand
image which is the soul of the product, consumers’
attitude toward advertising wherein good brand image can really accumulate and
improve positive attitude of the consumers’ toward advertising, the credibility of the spokesperson that can
gain a huge impact to the consumers, and the advertising frequency that may have a different effects on
consumers’ attitude towards advertising.

         This study seeks to
correlate that combination of good brand image and the spokesman’s credibility
are essential to add effectivity on advertising. In addition to that,
advertising frequency can manipulate the effect of the advertising itself. The researchers
gathered a lot of previous studies to support their study and they focused mainly
on three hypotheses – (a) first, brand image positively influences the effect
of advertising, (b) second, the spokesperson’s credibility has a positive
influence on consumers’ attitude towards advertising, and (c) lastly, different
advertising frequency has different effects on consumers’ attitude towards
advertising.             To investigate
and analyze data, the study used a pre-experimental design which is a mixed method.
They made used of a questionnaire with a 6-point Likert scale to examine the
participants regarding of what they feel and judge about the variables. They
have also prepared a 50-minute famous TV program with six commercial slots
inside and are randomly arranged. Three measurement scales were used – the
scale of the brand image, scale of credibility of the spokesperson, and the
scale of the effect of advertising. The participants were asked to fill out the
first questionnaire about the credibility of the spokesperson and the brand
image before watching the advertisements. After watching the program, they were
asked to fill out another questionnaire about their attitude to the target
advertisement. 457 college students participated in the study. They were the
second and third year students who studied in the university of Science and
Technology in Taipei.

findings confirmed the researchers’ three hypotheses. First, the study revealed
that good brand image affects the consumers’ attitude towards advertising since
it becomes the main source and background of the advertisement, hence the
enterprises must create a good brand image and transmit it to the consumers’
mind. Second, the study also found that credibility of the spokesperson can
influences consumers’ attitude towards advertising; therefore the endorser must
be an influential and a trustworthy person because these characteristics can
add up a lot to the advertising. Lastly, the study found that advertising
frequency influences consumers’ attitude towards advertising which contrast the
theory of Blair (1987) indicated that high frequency of advertising will bore
the audience and lessen its persuasion of advertising.  

lot of similar study regarding the brand image and the spokesperson credibility
are being studied in the present times. However, this study covers the effect
of advertising frequency on the consumers’ attitude which made it entirely
unique. In addition to that, the researchers provided bountiful information
regarding the topic in their review of related literature and made it easier
for the readers to understand the study. Another great strength of this study
is that in the result of their study, they have adjusted the result of the
regression model in order to much understand the influence of advertising
frequency to the consumers’ attitude towards the advertising. Also, they have
provided evidences that differ to some of the previous related studies plus the
huge number of the participants added strength to the study’s data since it has
gathered more than four hundred participants that can surely represent a wide
scope of the population.

research was conducted and published in 2012 and obviously all of the
references that have been used were old enough for its credibility to be still
valid. Considering the date of published, one more flaws of this paper is that
they used pre-experimental design to investigate the responses of the
participants and it can be a subject to numerous threats to the validity of the
study, but the good thing is that they used ANCOVA to analyze their data and
adjusted the results using the regression model.   

this study may have proven their hypotheses however the methods used and the
implications that were suggested should be re-evaluated. Regardless of the
number of threats to the study’s validity due to the methods that was used,
having a large sample size and an abundance amount of references made and
established the study’s credibility.



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