The Convention onInternational Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), alsoknown as the Washington Convention is a multilateral treaty. The main purposeof this treaty is to conserve and look after endangered plants and animals. Theobjective of CITES is to ensure that the survival of any species are notthreatened in the activity of any international trade. Under this internationaltreaty, countries put effort collectively to administer and coordinate theinternational trade of animal and plant species and also to affirm that thistrade does not damage or harm the survival of wild populations. Accordingly, anytrade in protected plant and animal species should be sustainable.1 In the early of 1960s, analysiswere made internationally in considering on the rate at which wild animals overthe world were being threatened and harmed as a result of trade done withoutany regulations.
In 1963, the convention was formulated at a meeting of theInternational Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUNC). In 1973, at ameeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, the subject matter ofthe convention was in unison and two years later, CITES came into force.2The activity of illegalwildlife trade is holding back states of their biodiversity, natural heritageand capital. This trade is colossal in its extent and measure of capacity. Itabsorbs a huge number of animals, their parts and derivatives, which includesliving animals, parts of iconic mega fauna such as elephant ivory and rhinohorn.
3 Basically, CITES wasintroduced as an authority to regulate the need to control illegal trade inwildlife. Today, the convention administers the international trade in over35,000 wild species of plants and animals between its 182 member states.4 For example, iguanas andparrots serve as some of the relatively 35,000 species that are protected.Species protected under the convention are stated in the appendices. Appendix Iincludes species that are threatened with annihilation and destruction. Itprovides the highest level of protection, which includes certain limitationsand conditions on commercial trade. Further, Appendix II comprises of speciesthat, although presently they are not threatened with annihilation anddestruction, they may become so if there are no trade controls. It involvesother species that simulate other stated species and that it has to be regulatedin order to control the trade efficiently in those other stated species.
MostCITES species are provided in this appendix. Appendix III provides species forwhich a number of countries has request other parties to provide assistance andcooperation in controlling international trade. In this matter, international tradenecessitate an export permit from the country that has listed the species or acertificate of origin if exported from the other country.5 The strength of CITESis the scheme to permit that assist the progress of international cooperationin conservation and trade monitoring. Permits are circulated exclusively if a particularcountry’s Management and Scientific Authorities concludes that the trade to becarried out is valid, lawful and that it does not harms the survival of thespecies in the world. The use of specific patterned permit forms grantsinvestigation administrators at ports of export and import to validateexpeditiously that CITES specimens are accurately recorded.6 Moreover, they assist theprogress of bringing together the species-specific trade data, which are usedin the formation of annual documents.
These information are used to find outthe activities in trade and to ensure that trade in wildlife is sustainable. Theeffect of trade monitoring has developed a substantial body of information onthe management and use of CITES species over the world. Adding on, CITES has providedassistance in ensuring the global conservation of species.
As there is apotential to sell and ship wildlife anywhere with online markets or by othertechnological means and in the disputes of increasing use of wildlife, CITES hadprovided mechanisms to competently conserve the diverse natural resources ofthe world.71Botanic Gardens Conservation International.Retrieved January 27, 2018, from https://www.bgci.org/policy/cites2/2Wildlife Trade Regulations in theEuropean Union (2010). Retrieved January 27, 2018, fromhttp://ec.europa.
eu/environment/cites/pdf/trade_regulations/short_ref_guide.pdf3National Policy on BiologicalDiversity 2016-2025. Retrieved January 27, 2018, fromhttp://www.nre.gov.
my/ms-my/PustakaMedia/Penerbitan/National%20Policy%20on%20Biological%20Diversity%202016-2025.pdf4Halting the Illegal trade of CITES,Species from World Heritage Sites (2017). Retrieved January 27, 2018, fromhttps://wwf.fi/mediabank/9712.pdf5Convention on International Trade inEndangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
Retrieved January 28, 2018, fromhttps://www.fws.gov/le/pdf/CITESTreaty.pdf6CITES (April 2011).
Retrieved January28, 2018, from https://www.cbd.int/doc/nbsap/CITES-NBSAP-Module.pdf7U.S CITES Implementation Report(2015). Retrieved January 28, 2018, fromhttps://www.fws.gov/international/pdf/implementation-report-us-cites-2013-2015.pdf