Thesources of treating diseases in our time are in evolution and diversity.
Bythese sources, it is not difficult for scientists to be able to eliminate alldiseases. Every second they spend for science to discover other methods oftreatment. This shows that the world is witnessing a great development in thefield of nuclear medicine.
Nuclear medicine is a branch of medicine that usesradioactive material in medical imaging or pathological diagnosis. It is usedin the treatment of diseases that are difficult to cure by known methods. Italso has many applications and uses in diagnostic treatments. In this report, Iwill talk about the most important applications of modern nuclear medicine andhow to use them and what are the risks that can be caused by this type ofmedical specialties.NuclearMedicine is a kind of modern medical specialties which is concerned withstudying the effects and applications of radioactive elements. It is used intreatment of diseases that are difficult to cure by known methods. WhereNuclear Medicine records radiations emitted from inside objects and bodiessubstitute for its external radiations such as X-Ray.
This process called”radiology done inside out” or “endoradiology”.Radiopharmaceutical or Nuclear radiology is done intravenously or orally. Then,by gamma cameras, the external examinations are captured and formed images orepictures from the radiation emitted by it. There are many similar applicationsfor that process like Bone scan, Liver scan, renal scan and Lung scan. Both NuclearMedicine and radiation are used in diagnostic treatment to ensure the patient’shealth and follow up diseases.
Nowadays, most of modern hospitals includeradiation or radioactivity in about one-third of their procedures. Because itis safe and don’t require issues. Nuclear Medicine is quicker than othermethods it can be used as a treatment for certain diseases. Also more than10ooo hospital around the world used Nuclear Medicine and radioactivity and employment ofNuclear Medicine is growing year by year and faster than any occupation.
It isexpected to grow 20% between 2012 and 2022.Myocardial Perfusion Scan is an application forNuclear medicine which means that a very small amount of radiation elementscalled Radionuclide are used to scan the heart muscle by evaluates the heart’sfunction and blood flow. It is used to track blood pressure and heart functionfor people with heart diseases. Radionuclides travel through the blood streamand the heart muscle absorbs them. The area absorbed by radionuclides differsfrom those that aren’t absorbed, thus diagnosing the diseases and calculatingthe blood flow. In this way treatment or medication that can be administered tothe patient is determined. Liver scan, Thyroid scanand Lung scan are other specialized applications for radiology procedure whichare used to examine the Liver, Thyroid and Lung to set specific conditions orto identify their functions. Liver scan is usually used to follow progress oftreatment for some conditions including Spleen scan.
For thyroid scan itprovides a lot of information about the structure and function of the thyroidand its relationship with Hormones. Iodine as an example. Another type ofNuclear Medicine applications is Lung scan, the most common application to findpulmonary embolism and examining the blood flow in the Lung. There are two typesof Lung scan which usually used to gather. The first one is Ventilation scan.It shows the area of the Lung that isn’t holding enough air.
The second one isPerfusion scan. It shows the area of Lung isn’t getting enough blood. All thesescans are carried out by the applications of radionuclides these orangs andabsorbed by it. Bone scan using NuclearMedicine helps to find cancers which have spread to the Bones and how welltreatment is working.
It is done by tiny amount of a radioactive substancecalled tracer. The areas which are absorbed too much or too little by tracercan be affected with cancer. It takes 1 to 4 hours for Bones to absorb thesmall radioactive which injected to the body through the vein in the arm. Afterthat, drinking several glasses of water frequently is very important to removethe uncollected radioactive material by the Bones. Next, a big scanning camerawill be placed in the body and started to scan the Bones.
During the scan, thecamera will move slowly around the body. 1 hour will be taken to scan the wholebody. Technetium-99m is a widely used radioactive tracer isotope in NuclearMedicine. T is the most useful element due to its half-life is very short andit leads to very fast clearing from the body after an imaging process. Thatmakes it the most commonly used medical radioisotope. The emerging advancements in Nuclear Medicine arevast and diverse.
It is impossible to predict the ways in whichradiopharmaceutical will improve diagnosis and treatment of diseases. AlthoughNuclear imaging techniques have already been used to understand the underlyingthe chemical process of brain behavior. Nuclear medicine could be very usefulin deepening our understanding of the metabolism and pharmacology of new drugs,an area that has only been partially explored with these techniques.