The following behavioural science terms will be discussed in detail,representativeness in behavioural and social science, data inbehavioural/social science, observational studies and psychometrics. Each termis thoroughly reviewed and researched in detail, such as how behaviouralscience and social science differ from each other in relation to data andrepresentativeness, the three different types of observational methods andthree different aspects of psychometrics which include intelligence, aptitudeand personality.

 Representativenessin Behavioural/Social ScienceBehaviouralscience can be defined as the exploration of the activities and interactionsamong human beings, some duties may include the investigation and analysis ofhuman relationships through the behavioural aspects of geography, biology, law,psychiatry and political study. This is a very broad field of study. Socialscience is the scientific study of society, this tells us about the worldbeyond our immediate experience and helps to explain how our own society worksfrom the causes of unemployment to what makes people happy. Representativenesscan also be defined as the ability to give an accurate portrayal of theresearch subjects known diversity and characteristics. Accordingto (Gerring, John Social Science Methodology) there is no such thing asrepresentativeness in general as there are many problems surroundingrepresentativeness. To achieve representativeness is social science which isbasically avoiding bias in a sample is to pick randomly from your population ofpotential cases, randomisation procedures maximise the representativeness of agiven sample. Secondly, one has to know a good deal about the population of thepart of society you are picking to know what is representative and what is not. According to (Study International Staff,2015) social sciences focus on the study of society and the relationship amongindividuals within society.

Interestingly in the text it states that Socialscience covers a wide variety of subjects, including economics, politicalscience, sociology, history, archaeology, anthropology, and law. Social scientists, we live in a multiple realityworld which pretty much saying that the world is subjective (everybody has adifferent perspective/ view on things). There aretwo ways of representing data in science. Qualitative and quantitative.Qualitative is more personal and is used to understand social and humanactivity where quantitative data is representative of a population and is usedto measure numerical data. The most common way of representing social data isthrough qualitative methods. Why usequalitative rather than quantitative? It is because the data you receive fromqualitative research is rich of information rather than lots of data that canbe persuaded the population in quantitative research.

We as social scientistswant to be get an insight into the minds of others and that they have to findout the research through unbiased questioning or population. Cons ofqualitative is that it is very expensive and it’s hard to get a conclusionbecause the answers can be so vague if done incorrectly or may be very uniqueso there may not be a link to the data you get from people. It is importantwhen you collect any form of data that it is not biased which is the point ofthe collection to get an honest review of what you are in search for. Behaviouralscientists generally use representative samples to investigate the humanpopulation as a whole for their study of how human beings react to differentscenarios and relationships, while social scientists use representative samplesto grasp a broad understanding of certain societies and how a population canreact to different social settings. In social science however, representativesampling was not always common to use a small sample but to instead pick awhole population by using a census etc. This is because at the time,researchers believed in the ‘law of large numbers ‘ which is in when youcollect a large number of cases no matter the size of the population you areall right and don’t have to worry. (Gobo, 2004)When asample is not known as representative of a whole population it is known assample error. Ifyour sample is unbalanced the data collected can be useless with a sample thatis bias.

How to ensure representativedata is achieved. There are two categories that you can choose from.1.    Probability/random sampling2.

    Nonprobability/ purposive sampling1-Randomsampling is when you choose samples from the population at random thereforeavoiding bias.2-Purposive sampling is the morecommonly used method. It involves putting people into categories. These arecalled quotas.

Quotas are normally bases on 3/ 4different variables, usually demographics such as gender, age and region. Thevariables can differ according to the target sample you wish to have.Data in Behavioural Science(Dr. Bertenthal, 2005) Behavioural science involves collecting, comparing, measuring and theability to search for a pattern.

(DeFranzo, 2011) Qualitative and Quantitativeare methods of collecting data. Qualitative data is mainly exploratory researchand used to understand the motivations and reasons of why we act in certainways and used to help develop hypotheses or thesis. Qualitative data can bestructured or unstructured.It uses various techniques of collecting researchsuch as Focus groups and voluntary observations.

DeFranzo, 2011 states thatquantitative data is a way of collecting numerical data and transforming itinto statistics. It is used to identify attitudes and opinions and measures itto discover patterns. Quantitative data also uses other methods such as,personal interviews  and online polls.O’Grady, 2001 states there are threedifferent tests. One of them if Norm referenced tests normally used forstandardised tests such as IQ or DATS tests.

This is where it does not matterhow well you do on the test but more importantly how you did in comparison toeveryone else. An example of scoring 27% meaning you are in the 27th percentile.Personality tests use this testing.

It’s to describe those individuals in termsof characteristics about how alike the average person they may be. Another formof collecting and analysing data is Criterion referenced test. A test designedto predict performances in activity or skills showing how good or bad a personmay be at something. It is used for job criteria. Only data that shows a cleardifferentiation between good and poor are used. The final test is called Domainreferenced tests. These test measure the percentage or proportion of a body ofknowledge or skill of which the individual shows on command (O’Grady,2001).

This would be the same as college and school tests. In this case there isa syllabus and the marks are awarded in corresponding to the knowledgedemonstrated.Socialscience experiment  Psychology is a big area to social scientists,studying how and why people react in certain ways.

But the only true way to findout the answer to these ‘whys’ and ‘how’ experiments must be taken place. (Cherry,2017) gave a really interesting insight to ‘8 Brilliant Social PsychologyExperiments’. A one of these experiments stood out the most to me is theCarlsberg social experiment. In the Carlsberg experiment it was an experimentabout how people judge you by your appearance. Cherry writes that it wasoriginally supposed to be an advertisement. The experiment consist of a cinematheatre and an unsuspecting couple would walk into the theatre to see only twoseats left. The rest of the seats were filled with ‘rugged and scary-lookingmale bikers’.

The experiment was to see how the couple react and will they takea seat or feel too scared and leave. Turns out those who took a seat wererewarded with a huge cheer from the bikers and a big round of applause and afree Carlsberg beer. This experiment showed us just one of many socialexperiments, but this is how social scientist collect their data by doingexperiments like this. SocialScience Vs Behavioural Science Social science and behavioural are oftenoverlapping but what are the differences and how are they studied. (Admin,2015) the author gives a brief account of the similarities and differences. Thetext states that behavioural science tends to conduct more experimental methodsthan social science. The writer calls the social science the experiments are’rather vague’. But the experiments that have been conducted are quite similar.

SocialScientists Nisbet,(2017) gave a hugely detailed piece of text of how social science began and howit has changed throughout the years all the way from the renaissance to the 20thcentury. Nisbet writes how Doctrines and philosophies were all questioning’inadequacy of reason, the subjective character of human commitment, and theprimacy of faith’. Nisbet mentions many influential scientists in his text . Butone scientist who stood out for me was Freud. He was fascinated by theunconscious mind. Freud believed that social behaviour and attitudes was notonly brought up by the external situation but also by internal emotional needscoming from childhood.

This justone of many ideologies that been brought up and changed and studied through theyears and it will continue to do so. Observational StudiesAn observational study is anon-experimental research design in which a researcher draws inferences andconclusions by observing behaviour in a systematic manner. (ObservationalStudy, n.d) The researcher is not able to control the independent variable andshould not influence or interfere with behaviour.

The subjects are comparedagainst a control group, in which observations and inferences are made. Thistype of research is most frequently used in the social sciences and marketing.As mentioned on Atlasti (n.

d), an observational study is a “social researchtechnique which involves the direct observation of phenomena in their naturalsetting”.We have learned that there aredifferent types of observational methods and it is necessary that distinctionsare made between them.  These categories are Controlled Observations,Natural Observations and Participant Observations.Controlled Observation Controlled observation is a methodwhere the researcher structures the environment of the observation, hence it isa structured method of research. The researcher decides where and when thestudy will take place, which participants will be chosen, in what circumstancethe observation will take place and uses a standardised approach (McLeod, 2015).This type of research is usually carried out in a psychology laboratory.

Thepsychology laboratory is sometimes equipped with two-way mirrors, soresearchers can observe the behaviour of the participants, or in other casesparticipants are filmed. Controlled observation is non-participant observationand the researcher has no direct contact with the participants when they arebeing observed. In many cases, detailed descriptions ofall behaviour observed by the researcher are coded instead of written as it ismuch easier to turn the data into statistics. Behaviour is coded according to apreviously agreed scale using a behaviour schedule. The behaviour observed issystematically classified into distinct categories by the research.Participants in controlled observationsare aware they are being watched. This type of research is overt. However, dueto the participants awareness, this sometimes affects their behaviour and thevalidity of it.

This is known as the Hawthorne effect. Paradis and Sutkin(2017) defined the Hawthorne effect as “a research participant’s alteredbehaviour in response to being observed”.Naturalistic ObservationAn unstructured observational method isnaturalistic observation. This involves studying the spontaneous behaviour ofparticipants in their natural and un-altered surroundings. As the researcher issimply observing the natural flow of behaviour in its own setting, there issignificantly greater ecological validity than in controlled observation.However, researchers must be trained to undertake this method of observation asthey must be capable of identify and recognise aspects of the situation thatare psychologically significant. Naturalistic observation is performedon a micro sample.

It is often difficult to generalise the findings of theresearch to the wider society as not everyone is represented in the smallsample. No manipulation of any variables take place in this research. Due tothis, this method is less reliable than others and also the same exact studycan never be repeated. As well as being less reliable, cause and effectrelationships cannot be established as variables are not manipulated in anyway.

Participant ObservationIn Participant Observation, theresearcher is directly in contact with participants and even becomes part ofthe group. This can be covert (disguised) or overt (undisguised). Covert iswhere the researcher conceals his/her real identity and participants are notaware of his/her purpose. The researcher poses as a genuine member or thegroup, e.g. Leon Festinger’s research into a secluded ‘doomsday’ cult whoanticipated an inevitable apocalypse, “Festinger and colleagues joined the cultto observe the phenomenon from the inside and participated in group meetings.”(Roulet & Gill & Sébastien & Gill, 2017)This allows the researcher toexperience the phenomena first-hand in the same way that the participants getto experience it. However, as they are undercover, researchers must makestrenuous efforts to record behaviour and often must rely on their memory asthey cannot openly take notes.

 PsychometricsWhatis psychometrics?         Inthe psychometric society there are various views of what psychometrics isdefined as. (Kelderman, ND) writes that’s it is all statistical methods thatare useful for behavioural science and social science even when it comes todealing with missing data. Kelderman also describes how it is used in variousareas including education, industrial and organizational psychology,behavioural genetics, neuropsychology, clinical psychology, medicine, and evenchemistry. (Borsboom, ND) writes that’s it’s focussed on ‘construction ofassessment tools, measurement instruments, and formalized models that may serveto connect observable phenomena’. Psychometricstesting            Anexample of some of the uses of psychometric testing, (Osborne, 2014) writesabout what they (employers in this case) in interviews are looking for whendoing these tests and why they are doing it. She begins to talk with a businesspsychologist Mark Parkinson and he explains the difference between a normaltest with right or wrong answers and a psychometric test “a test is somethingwith a right or wrong answer, which might be used to measure numeracy orliteracy’. Mark continues and says a psychometric test (questionnaires) is atest to try find out what kind of a person you are.

It’s a test to try revealmore things about your persona that you wouldn’t admit in an interview. Hestates its designed to ‘expose how you behave and what motivates you’ but alsowrites how its only useful if the employer knows what he is looking for becausesome things they might try to measure cannot be measured mark uses the examples’leadership or creativity’ PersonalityPersonality can be defined by ‘the visible aspect of one’s character as it impresses others’ ( Why is personality important? Itgives us an understanding of behaviour and in terms of marketing it providesevidence to what a consumer will buy in terms of their personality.

There arelots of different types and traits of personalities but according to Pappas(2017) there are five main types these include; OpennessConscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism. Each has a differentmeaning. Can a personality change? IntelligencePsychometricsis the study surrounding the theory and technique of psychological measurementincluding the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personalitytraits. (Psychometrics, n.

d.)Psychometrics helps the way that scientists can study and interpretintelligence. Psychometric intelligence tests include intelligence quotienttests (IQ tests). The common forms of these tests are the Stanford-Binet,Ravens progressive matrices and Wechsler adult intelligence scale. All of thesetest for the same dominant form of intelligence the general intelligence factorwhich is also known as the g. in the view of psychometricians the g factor isclosely identified with the concept of intelligence. This approach tointelligence has been somewhat criticised by some scientists such as RobertSternberg he points out that the general population have a different outlook onintelligence than most psychometricians which means that the psychometricapproach only measures a part of what is understood universally asintelligence.

Sceptics often argue that there is so much scientific knowledgeabout the brain yet to be discovered that an IQ test is not enough to rate fullintelligence. (Psychometric intelligence, n.d.)    Accordingto Massey, 2017 behavioural science is the scientific means of predicting thefuture and extremely important for anyone in the Marketing world. It is drivenby solely obtained empirical data and this is where it is different from othersciences such as social science. It is clear that each category has affectedbehavioural science research in different ways and we can see how it differentiatesfrom social science. How different experiments and techniques for researchprovide different results.

It shows how far we have come in understanding thesesciences and the importance of them in our everyday lives. That how experimentsthat we may be aware and unaware of provide different results and show how are instinctsare to react in certain situations. It proves how important is for scientiststo discover how we react and why?ReferenceListDeFranzo, Susan, 2011. Differencebetween Qualitative and Quantitative research, Snap Surveys.

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