The organization justice theory explains theperceptions and beliefs of organizational citizenship behaviors, organizationalcommitment, job satisfaction, and job performance (Charash & Spector,2001). The three components of the organizational justice theory areprocedural, distributive, and interactional (Cropanzano, Bowen, &Gilliland, 2007). Each component has a different effect on employees and theperception of justice within an organization. The three components of thejustice theory help determine commitment to the organization, satisfaction withthe job, and performance of the job (Charash & Spector, 2001). Proceduraljustice is the formal allocation of processes.
Distributive justice explainsthe distribution of work among employees and the appropriateness of theoutcomes. Interactional justice explains how employees are treated by the organizationalleaders. The problem with procedural justice is an employee’s views of thefairness an organization has with procedures. When a downsizing occurs,employees feels a change in the methods and procedures related to completes a jobtask (Beylerian and Kleiner, 2003). If employees begin to think they are sufferingfrom unfair decision-making they may develop negative attitude.
Organizational leadersmust maintain communication with the employees to avoid voluntary turnoverduring a downsizing, by making sure their work load remain balanced (Hopkins andWeathington, 2006).The concern with distributive justice is the fairness in theworkload. As the downsizing occurs in an organization, many employees begin toleave. It increases workload on remaining employees as they have to take additionalresponsibilities and also has to maintain current duties. If one employees receivemore work than another employees they begin to form negative perceptions of distributive.Organizational leaders should make sure to keep the work distribution is equal amongemployees as it would help to keep a positive attitude with the remaining employees.
Interaction justice helps describe how the immediatesupervisor of an employee influences organizational justice perceptions morethan any other leadership level. Interactional justice is the social side ofjustice and has two facets: interpersonal justice and informational justice.Interpersonal justice refers to the degree of dignity, respect, and sensitivityemployees receive from the immediate supervisor. Informational justice refersto the degree that knowledge and explanations employees receive from theimmediate supervisor about implemented changes and procedures (Wu, Neubert, andXiang, 2007).