The Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of HigherEducation “Peter the Great St.
Petersburg Polytechnic University” Institute of Humanities Department of International Relations Courseworkdiscipline”Linguistic aspect of regional studies””peacemakingactivity of China in the UN” Completed: Second year student, 23832/9 gr. Moskalets Alena Alexandrovna_____________ Checked by: Senior Lecture Ivannikov Nikita Sergeevich _____________ “__” __________20__ St. Petersburg2017 Table of contents Introduction. 3 Chapter 1.1 About the UN..
5 Chapter 1.2 About the UN’s peacekeeping. 6 Chapter 2.1 Peacemaking activity of China in the UN. 9 Chapter 2.2 Chinese peacekeeping at the present 11 Conclusion. 13 List of literature. 15 Introduction Conflicts become long and difficultto regulate, and sometimes it is impossible for a particular state toindependently resolve a conflict that threatens that country, region or thewhole world.
There are more than 40 active conflicts around the world now.1UN peacekeeping activities are very significant as a result of the factthat regional wars and armed conflicts are increasingly threatening peace andstability. Conflicts acquire the character of lengthy and difficult toregulate. Separately taken state, it is sometimes impossible to independentlyresolve the conflict that threatens this country, the region or the wholeworld.In some cases, UN peacekeepers are the guarantor of the solution forconflict situations around the whole world. Unfortunately, conflicts are not arare phenomenon for modern international relations.
Today it is more than 40conflict points around the world. Many of them are in close proximity to Chinaand China’s intervention is simply necessary for a positive outcome. Also, Chinamay have an impact at the most insecure and uncontrollable threat to the wholeworld – North Korea.For many years the PRC’s attitude tothe problem of peacekeeping remained on the position of non-interference buthas changed significantly over the past decades. Instead of complete rejectionfrom the early 1980s, peacekeeping became an important component ofinternational regulation.
In the 2000s, peacekeeping became an integral part ofChina’s strategy, contributing to the country’s national interests. As aresult, there is a significant increase of China’s participation ininternational operations conducted by the UN.The object of research is directlythe People’s Republic of China position and its regulatory activities withinthe UN. The subject is the problem of conflict resolution with the assistanceof UN peacekeeping forces.On the strength ofthe object and the subject of research follows the work’s purpose it is anoverview of the peacekeeping activities of the United Nations.
Based onpurpose, the following tasks can be distinguished. Consider:- peacekeeping of the PRC and the UN in particular;- forms of peacekeeping;- peacekeeping operations conducted under the auspices of the UnitedNations;Due to the relevanceof the problem, there is no problem with the search for suitable literature.Thus, internationalconflicts are an important problem of the “agenda” of modern society.Governments are increasingly turning to the UN for assistance in resolvinginterethnic conflicts that erupt in many regions of the world after the end ofthe Cold War.
And the United Nations has assumed responsibility for theirprevention, localization and termination. This course work consists of an introduction, 2 chapters, conclusion andlist of literature. The first chapter covers peacekeeping activities, thestructure, the main bodies, the activities of the UN. The second chapterreflects the China’s peacekeeping activities within the UN association, showsthe change in the country’s attitude to active participation in the affairs ofthe Association for Peace. Chapter1.
1 About the UN The United Nations is aninternational organization was founded in 1945. Now it consists of 193 Member States. The mission andactivities of the UN are determined by the purposes and principles set forth inthe UN Charter.Due to the powers vested in UNCharter and its unique international character, the United Nations can makedecisions on the issues facing humanity in the 21st century, such as peace andsecurity, climate change, sustainable development, human rights, disarmament,terrorism, humanitarian and emergency situations, gender equality, governance,food production and much more.The UN provides a platform whererepresentatives of each country can express their views in the GeneralAssembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and otherbodies and committees. By assisting in the establishment of dialogue betweenMember States and in the conduct of negotiations, the Organization becomes themechanism by which governments from different countries find common ground andjointly solve problems. 2 Chapter 1.
2 About the UN’s peacekeeping The UNCharter has the form of an international treaty and obliges members of theorganization to regulate all disputes by peaceful means. It must renounce thethreat of using force against another state and has the right to take anydisputed issue to the discussion of the Security Council.The UNSecurity Council is the main body responsible for maintaining peace andsecurity. If the dispute is submitted to the Security Council, its firstactions are aimed at a peaceful settlement. In some cases, the Council itselfconducts an investigation and acts as an intermediary in resolving theconflict. 3When theconflict goes to war, the immediate Council’s priority is speedy cessation.This can happen in various ways, for example by issuing a ceasefire directive,sending military observers or peacekeeping forces to the conflict zone.
The essenceof peacekeeping is to convince the conflicting parties to use diplomatic meansto stop hostility.TheSecretary General plays the main role in peacekeeping. According the UNCharter, the Secretary-General can bring to the attention of the SecurityCouncil any issue that threatens peace.The Secretary General may resort to good mediationservices or to “preventive diplomacy” in resolving a conflictsituation.Preventivediplomacy includes activities to prevent the emergence of conflict situations,their resolution before they becomes a military conflict and limit the scale ofthese clashes, in case it already begun.
In case the parties of the conflictrefuse to solve the problem peacefully, the Security Council can resort toforce sanctions. 4At thefirst stage, economic sanctions can be used. The Council resorts to them andthe embargo if the world is under threat and all possibilities to settle theconflict at the level of agreements are exhausted.According toChapter VII of the UN Charter when all available means for peacekeeping areineffective it is permissible to use more forceful measures, including militaryaction, under the leadership of the UN Secretary General, giving the UN memberstates special authority to resolve the conflict.5Today,peace and security are not only the absence of conflicts. A lasting peacepresupposes the development of the economy, social justice, environmentalprotection, the democratization of society, disarmament, respect for humanrights.After theend of the conflict, the UN usually begins to carry out peacekeeping functionsaimed at supporting the structures that will strengthen and consolidate thepeace process. Their activities extend to military security, civil law and order,the protection of human rights, elections, local government, health, educationand economic recovery.
The maininstrument of the UN’s work to promote peace is development support. Manyorganizations under the auspices of the United Nations has an important role inthe process of rebuilding countries, providing opportunities for displacedpersons, building confidence in national and local governments.The UN mayassist in the repatriation of refugees, the destruction of anti-personnelmines, the restoration of infrastructure and the recovery of the economy; ithelps in strengthening the inter-agency structure; monitoring of elections andpromotion of human rights. This kind of peacekeeping is the best way to preventthe war resumption.But if theconflict finally erupted, the so-called Peacekeeping Operations are a powerfultool in hands of the international community. When the UN Peacekeeping Forcesreceived the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 their role was recognized.6Chapter2.1 Peacemaking activity of China inthe UN.
Over the past 20 years, the PRC hasbecome an increasingly influential player in the international arena. Chinademonstrates a constructive and pragmatic position on the whole range of issuesof the international community. Beijing continues to build up internationalprestige and resources, strengthening positions on key world issues, convertingeconomic power into “political power”. This process is likely to beprogressive and planned.
It’s distinguishes the model of Chinese modernizationfrom other development options. Deployment of significantpeacekeeping activities within the framework of UN peacekeeping operations isone of the most striking manifestations of activisation China’s internationalactivities. A convincing confirmation of this fact is the increase the numberof Chinese peacekeepers by more than 20 times compared to 2000. 7The history of China-UN relations onpeacekeeping operations has began in vain.
The reason for this was (among otherthings) the Korean War of 1950-1953. During this war the Chinese army acted onthe side of the northern coalition against the “south” represented bySouth Korea, the United States, Britain and other countries in the UNpeacekeeping force (it was officially considered, that the PRC has notparticipate in the conflict, its regular units were formally considered to bethe compounds of the so-called “Chinese folk volunteers”).This skeptical approach persistedeven after the PRC was officially admitted to the UN in 1971. Even though thePRC became a permanent member of the UN Security Council, Beijing has beenrefrained from including in the debate on the Peacekeeping Council for manyyears.The UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moongave a positive assessment to China’s growing role in maintaining peace duringhis first visit to China in 2008.
He has recommended the level of economic andpolitical influence of the country with the level of funds and peacekeepers forUN operations be adjusted. “You are one of the leading member countries ofthe United Nations, and now you are a member of the top ten donor countries forpeacekeeping operations. China suppose to rise even higher on this list if wewant to rebuff a worthy response to ever-increasing global challenges.” Thus,Ban Ki-moon pointed to the possibility, even the necessity, to further build upthe Chinese peacekeeping forces.
8There are three stages in the processof involving China in the UN peacekeeping activities:1. 1981 – 1990 gg. – formal and legalrecognition of the UN peacekeeping operations by Beijing, inclusion in debatesand voting in the Security Council on issues of peacekeeping.2.
1990 – 2003: China’s gradualinvolvement in direct participation in the UN peacekeeping operations. Thefirst Chinese peacekeepers begin to perform duties within the UN operations.3.
2003 – present – a qualitativeincrease in the level of China’s participation in UN peacekeeping activities. Asharp increase in the number of Chinese peacekeepers and operations involvingthem.9 Chapter2.2 Chinese peacekeeping at the present The first serious leap of thequantitative growth in China’s involvement in peacekeeping operations coincideswith the beginning of the procedure for changing the leadership in the country.
In March 2003, Hu Jintao became a PRC’s Chairman. In April 2003 the number ofChinese peacekeepers increased threefold (from 111 in March to 329 in April),and China moved from 44th to 27th place in the list of donors of UNpeacekeeping operations.The new China’s leader took a courseto raise the international authority of China from the first days of hispresidency. The concept of “China’s peaceful elevation”, which wasalso proclaimed in 2003, clearly demonstrates this. It was a strategic course forthe coming years: it was supposed to convert the results of a rapid economicgrowth into the growth of aggregate state power in the international arena.This concept was also an attempt to adapt the image of a strong China to themodern international realities and at the same time to demonstrate that thesteadily growing power of the country will not harm others countries.10A similar slogan has already beenencountered in the history of China.
So, in the 1950s. Zhou Enlai has beenurged “to fight for the rise of China.” However, the new theory ofelevation was distinguished by one principal thing: the emphasis was on apeaceful rise, a rise not at the expense of others, growth without threat toothers. And in this sense, the accelerated expansion of participation inpeacekeeping operations suited as well as possible.
At the same time, Beijingwas able to further engage in international affairs, indirect influence onother countries, get acquainted with foreign experience and knowledge, as wellas a great platform for demonstrating its peace and striving for stability.Chinese peacekeepers are representedby civilian police, military observers, engineering personnel, medical unitsand transport companies. The main activity’s area of Chinese troops involved inpeacekeeping operations are engineering support, creation transportinfrastructure and medical assistance.Among the main motives for China’s activation in thedirection of increasing participation in the UN peacekeeping activities can benoted a gradual restructuring of the Chinese foreign policy strategy: China’sintegration into the international community, finding a responsible worldpower, changing the views of the Chinese leadership on sovereignty and thepossibility of intervention, obligations under international norms in the fieldglobal and regional security. Conclusion China’s expanding involvement inpeacekeeping activities of the United Nations provides an important and at thesame time an urgent opportunity for the international community to cooperatewith China on global security issues. Also, participation in peacekeepingoperations, and the most importantly, the desire to further build up thepeacekeeping potential of the Chinese leadership increases China’s responsibilityin maintaining regional security, making it more predictable and”transparent” from the military point of view, allows theinternational community to develop cooperation relations with Beijing on a moretrusting basis.Now China is an extremely important partner ofparticipating in peacekeeping.
This fact is due to a number of reasons:- the current economic, political andcultural weight of the country, including the growing military potential andthe accumulated authority among developing countries;- the ability to influence thedecision-making process, including the Celestial Empire’s activities on theAfrican continent;- the emerging Chinese foreign policy -the image of the defender for countries lagging behind in their development,which is the central task of the UN peacekeeping forces in any part of theworld. China’s peacekeeping activityincreases the effectiveness of multilateral UN peacekeeping operations. Inturn, for China, its peacekeeping image provides a number of strategicadvantages, the most ambitious of which are:- Enhancement of China’s internationalstatus;- improvement of China’s internationalposition;- increasing the role and influence ofthe PRC in the world and the UN. In addition, peacekeeping activities provide theChinese security forces with the opportunity to upgrade their skills to borrowtactical achievements from foreign partners, to train in “operations outsidethe war conditions”, as well as gain experience in military and other missionsin strategically important facilities.Active participation inpeacekeeping activities in the United Nations is considered by China as animportant component of strengthening its positions in the international arenaand strengthening its influence on the development of the situation in the”hot spots”. It is possible that as an indirect effect of activeparticipation in peacekeeping operations, Beijing can test the internationalcommunity’s response to the “internationalization” of its ownmilitary doctrine. At the same time, the Chinese are trying to establishcontacts with all the states on which successful implementation of Chinesepeacekeeping ambitions depends.
Russia in this context is regarded by China asan influential and reliable partner.Listof literature1. Theworld at war: Stunning interactive map reveals every conflict currently activearound the world // Mail OnlineElectronic source. URLwww.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4453666/The-world-war-Interactive-map-reveals-conflicts.html#ixzz51WGj9HAY(accessed 16.
12.2017). 2. About// The United Nations Electronic source URLhttp://www.
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12.2017) 5. Actions with Respect to Threats to the Peace,Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggression (Chapter VII) URL: http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/actions.shtml 6. Encyclopediaof International Organizations: t 1.
St. Petersburg: Publishing House of theFaculty of Law of St. Petersburg University 2003; 524 p. (in Russian) 7.
TROOP AND POLICE CONTRIBUTORS // UN Peacekeeping Electronic source URLhtml://peacekeeping.un.org/en/troop-and-police-contributors (accessed16.12.
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Peacekeeping: new approaches, new content/ Journal “Theory and practice of socialdevelopment” Availableat: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/mirotvorchestvo-novye-podhody-novoe-soderzhanie (accessed 16.12.2017) 5Actions with Respect to Threats to the Peace,Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggression (Chapter VII)http://www.
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