Table 1. Comparison
of present study results of the water compartment of river Ganga with other
national and international researchers.

 

S. no.

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Pesticide name

Present study result of water compartment
of river Ganga (ng/l)

National researchers
Results (ng/l)

International
Researchers
Results (ng/l)

1

?BHC

41.3-64.1

22-1119
(Agnihotri
               etal.1993),
110-99520
(Nayak
                etal. 1995)
0-290
(Shankara         ramakrishnan etal. 2005)
 
River
Ganges.

0.15-20.60
(Fernandez
etal.
 1999) River Egro and Yangtse.
4.2-5.5
(Sun etal.
              2006)
Great
lakes, North America
0.39-16.39
(Hamed
2005)
 Suez cannal

2

?DDT

0.55-29.76

BDL-232
(Agnihotri
               etal.1993),
70-143230
(Nayak
                etal. 1995)
BDL-20600
(Raghuvanshi etal. 2014)
River
Ganges

0.36-1.61
(Fernandez
etal.
 1999), River Egro
1.9-2.3
(Sun etal.
              2006)
Great
lakes, North America
 

3

Aldrin

0.55-29.76

BDL-99
(Agnihotri
               etal.1993)
River
Ganges

 

4

?-Endosulphan

BDL-0.917

BDL-177
(Agnihotri
               etal.1993),
River
Ganges

 

 

 

 

The
results of the present study are comparable with values reported earlier from
India as well as from other countries. Present study showed that the BHC, DDT,
Aldrin and Endosulphan residues in water samples of river Ganga collected from
Chandighat, Balawali, Shukratal and Barrage (Bijnor) are lower as compared to
river Ganga at, Farrukahabad , Varanasi, Kanpur and Allahabad reported by
Agnihotri et al. (1993), Nayak et.al. (1995) Shankararamakrishnan et al. (2005) and (Raghuvanshi etal. 2014)

 

The
concentration of BHC and DDT found in water samples of river Ganga are higher
as compared to river Yangtse in Nanjing China and river Ebro in Spain reported
by Fernandez et al. (1999) and Sun et al. (2002) respectively. Same trend
was observed in the surface water of Ei Tensah, Bitter lakes and Suez Canal
present in Egypt reported by Hamed (2005).

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2. Comparison
of present study result of sediment compartment of river Ganga with other
national and international researchers.

S.
no.

Pesticide
name

Present
study result of sediment compartment of river Ganga (?g/g)

National
researchers
Results
(?g/g)

International
Researchers

Results
(?g/g)

1

?BHC

0.174-0.273

0.010-0.047 (Dua etal. 1996)
0.0008-0.0078 (Sarkar
etal.
1997) Arabian sea.
0.0001-0.0004
(Guzzela etal. 2005)  Hugli estuary
West Bengal.
 
0.003-0.016
(Pandit etal.
2006)
 

 

2

?DDT

0.148-0.188

0.039-0.403
(Dua etal.
1996)
0.001-0.017
(Sarkar
etal.
1997) Arabian sea.
0.142-2.20 (Dua etal. 1999)
0.0001-0.0019
(Guzzela etal. 2005) Hugli estuary West Bengal.
 
 

0.007-0.080
(Nhan etal.
2001)
Freshwater cannal of Hanoi region.
0.008-0.034
(Sapozhnikova
etal. 2005)
River Dniester

3

Aldrin

0.024- 0.043

0.00009-0.00026
(Sarkar etal.
1997) Arabian sea

 

 

 

Present
study showed that the BHC, DDT, Aldrin residues in sediment samples of river
Ganga collected from Chandighat, Balawali, Shukratal and Barrage (Bijnor) are
higher as compared to reported in other water bodies from different part of
India. The
results of present study are also compared to the studies carried out in other
parts of the world. Nhan et al.
(2001) have observed total DDT in sediments ranging from 0.007 to 0.080 µg/g
and also noticed the detectable level of BHC in sediment sample of Hanoi
region. Sapozhnikova et al. (2005)
have reported DDT residues range from 0.0082-0.0347 µg/g in sediment samples of
Dniester river, Moldova. Quian et al.
(2006) have reported the contamination BHC and DDT in surface sediments from
lake Dongting, the second largest freshwater lake in China.

Conclusion

The
results of present study suggest that the organochlorine pesticides viz. ?BHC,
Aldrin, ?-Endosulphan, ?DDT and Methoxychlor contamination is predominant at
almost all the four sites of river Ganga (Chandighat in Haridwar, Balawali,
Shukratal and Barrage in Bijnor). The levels of organochlorines found in water
and sediments samples were quite high at most of the places  but these are comparable to other parts of
India while high as compared to other countries viz. Spain, Egypt, China and
Moldova. Results also revealed low concentrations of organochlorine pesticides
and its derivatives in water and higher in sediments. This is because they are
less soluble in aquatic phase, but they are well-trapped in sediment particles.
The organochlorine pesticides remain in the environment long after its application as they break down slowly. DDT, which
is the most notorious organochlorine pesticide, was banned in the 1970s but
still present in traces as its half life is 75 years. Aside from this, the most
commonly found organochlorine pesticides are HCH, Endosulphan, Aldrin etc. These
pesticides come either through direct dumping into rivers, etc. or from
agricultural areas. Results of the present study may find reference for the
policy makers and diplomats to decide the use of organochlorine pesticides in
vector control program and in agriculture.

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