Tableof Contents 1. Introduction..
……………………………………………………………33. Correlatingtheoretical concepts ………………………………………………44. Designof the System ………………………………………………………55. Methodology…………………………………………………………….….66.
.………………………………………………………….……129. Referencesand Bibliography…………………………………………….
…13 INTRODUCTIONThe heart ratemonitor is a personal monitoring device that allows to measure person heartrate in real time or record their heart rate for Analysis. The heart rate of ahealthy adult at rest is around 72 beats per minute (bpm) & Babies at around 120 beats per minute(bpm), while older children have heart rates at around 90 bpm.
The heart raterises gradually during exercises and slowly returns to the normal value afterexercise 2. When the pulse rate returns to normal is an indication of thefitness of the person. Lower than the normal heart rates are usually an indicationof a condition known as bradycardia, while higher is known as tachycardia. Heart rate is simply measured by placing thethumb over the subject’s arterial pulsation, and feeling, timing and countingthe pulses within in 30 seconds.
Heart rate (bpm) of the person is then foundby multiplying the obtained number by 2. This method although simple but it isnot accurate and can give errors when the rate is high. There are moresophisticated methods to measure the heart rate utilize electronic techniques.Electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the frequently used methods for measuring theheart rate but it is an expensive device. Low-cost devices in the form of wristwatches are also available for the instant measurement of the heart rate andthese devices can give accurate measurements but their cost is usually inexcess of several hundred dollars, making them uneconomical. Hence this heartrate monitor is definitely a useful instrument in knowing the pulse of thesubject or the patient. Significance OfHeart beat Heartwork is to pump blood that circulates oxygen and nutrient aroundthe body in order to keep it functioning. When the force is exerted the rate at which the heart beatswill changes proportional to the amount of effort being exerted.
By checking thevoltage created by the beating of the heart, its rate can be easily observedand used for a number of health purposes. Heart works to pump oxygen-rich bloodto your muscles and to carry cell waste products away from your muscles. Theheart rate gives fair indication during exercise routines of how effective thatroutine is improving your health. Heart ratemeasurement indicates the wellness ofthe human cardiovascular system. In clinical environment, heart rate is checkedunder controlled conditions like blood measurement, heart voice measurement,and Electrocardiogram (ECG) etc. Our heart works to pump oxygen-rich blood toour muscles and to carry cell waste products away from our muscles. The more weuse our muscles, the harder our heart works to performs these tasks implies ourheart must beat faster to deliver more blood. A heart rate measurement means totake a sample of heartbeats and measure the Beats per Minute (bpm) so that theinformation can easily be used to track heart condition.
The average normalhuman heart rate is about 70 bpm for adult males and 75 bpm for adult females.Heart rate changes significantly between individuals based on fitness, age andgenetics. Professional athletes often have very low resting heart rates. Heartrate can be found by measuring one’s pulse 2. If heart rate is lower thannormal the condition is known as bradycardia, in the opposite case it is knownas tachycardia.Internet ofthingsThe Internet ofthings (stylised Internet of Things or IoT) is the internetworking of physicaldevices, vehicles (also referred to as “connected devices” and”smart devices”), buildings and other items— embedded withelectronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enablethese objects to collect and exchange data. In 2013 the Global Standards Initiativeon Internet of Things (IoT-GSI) defined the IoT as “the infrastructure ofthe information society.” The IoT allows objects to be sensed and/orcontrolled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creatingopportunities for more direct integration of the physical world intocomputer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy andeconomic benefit.
The Pulse SensorAmped is a plug-and-play heart-rate sensor for Arduino. It can be used by students,artists, athletes, makers, and game & mobile developers who want to easilyincorporate live heart-rate data into their projects. It essentially combines asimple optical heart rate sensor with amplification and noise cancellationcircuitry making it fast and easy to get reliable pulse readings. Also, it sipspower with just 4mA current draw at 5V so it’s great for mobile applications.
Simply clip the Pulse Sensor to your earlobe or finger tip and plug it intoyour 3 or 5 Volt Arduino and you’re ready to read heart rate! The 24″cable on the Pulse Sensor is terminated with standard male headers so there’sno soldering required. Of course Arduino example code is available as well as aProcessing sketch for visualizing heart rate data.LITERATURESURVEY1) It is been estimated that India willsoon overthrow the US and may become the largest hub of heart disease1. 2) A person is more prone to the heartattack during early sleeping hours2.3) Heart attack is been regarded asleading cause of death worldwide 3.4)Every minute a person dies of heartattack and every 1/3 of a minute a person experience heart attack4.
5 ) Heart attack is been regarded as thebiggest cause of death among old adults resulting over 2.5 lakh death each year5.Current technology consists of opticaland electrical monitors.
The electrical method provides a bulky strap aroundone’s chest. The optical method does not require the strap and can be used moreconveniently than the electrical method. There are many constraints in producinga heart monitor. First, the technology used to measure the pulse has to bedetermined. A cost efficient way of measuring the pulse is the combination of aled and photo-sensor CORRELATINGTHEORETICAL CONCEPT1.Internetof thingsIoT stands for Internet of things.
It is the internetworking of physical devices, vehicles , buildings and otheritems— embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and networkconnectivity that help these objects to collect and exchange data. The IoTlets objects to be sensed and controlledremotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities formore direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, andresulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit. When IoT is combined with sensors and actuators, the technologybecomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical systems, which alsoencompasses technologies such as smartgrids, smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities. Each object can be uniquelyidentified through its embedded computing system but is able to interoperatewithin the existing Internet infrastructure. It is believed that the IoT willconsist of almost 50 billion objects by 2020. Basically, IoT fulfils most ofthe advanced connectivity of devices, systems, and services that goesbeyondmachine-to-machine (M2M) communications and covers a variety ofprotocols, domains, and applications.
2.FirebaseFirebase isa commercially available backend platform for building Web, Android and IOSapplications. It offers features real time database, different APIs, multipleauthentication types and hosting platform.Firebaseis a real time database.
It is a schema less database in which the data isstored in JSON format. In short entire database is a big JSON tree withmultiple nodes. So before planning your database, you need to prepare the jsonstructure in way that the data is accessible in easier way by avoiding nestingof child nodes.. It by default stores the data offline when there is nointernet connection,when the device connects to internet, all the data will bepushed to realtime database. Firebase is simple and userfriendly as there is no need for complicated configuration. It works in real-time, which means that every change willautomatically update connected clients.
Firebase offers user interactive andsimple control dashboard. Firebase unpaid plan is limited to 50 Connections and 100 MBof storage.3.AndroidAndroid isa mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel anddesigned primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones andtablets.
Android’s user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, usingtouch gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping,tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtualkeyboard for text input. In addition to touchscreen devices, Google has furtherdeveloped Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wearfor wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Androidare also used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. DESIGN OF THE SYSTEM METHODOLOGYIn this projectwe are using Spiral model which is similar to the incremental model, with moreemphasis placed on risk analysis. The spiral modelis similar to the incremental model, with more emphasis placed on riskanalysis.
The spiral model has four phases: Planning, Risk Analysis,Engineering and Evaluation. A software project repeatedly passes through thesephases in iterations (called Spirals in this model). The baseline spiral,starting in the planning phase, requirements are gathered and risk is assessed.Each subsequent spirals builds on the baseline spiral.
Its one of the softwaredevelopment models like Waterfall, Agile, V-ModelThe spiral modelhas four phasesl Planningl Risk Analysisl Engineeringl EvaluationPlanning Phase:Requirements are gathered during the planning phase. Requirements likeBussiness Requirement Specifications and System Requirement specifications.Risk Analysis:In this phase a process is undertaken to identify risk and find alternatesolutions. A prototype is developed at the end of the risk analysis phase. Ifany risk is found during the risk analysis then other methods are suggested andimplemented.EngineeringPhase: In this phase software is developed along with testing at the end of thephase. Hence in this phase the development and testing is done.
Evaluation phase: This phase the customer areallowed to evaluate the output of the present project before the projectcontinues to the next spiral.Advantages of Spiral model:l Highamount of risk analysis hence, avoidance of Risk is enhanced.l Goodfor large and mission-critical projects.l Strongapproval and documentation control.l AdditionalFunctionality can be added at a later date.l Softwareis produced early in the software life cycle. TOOLSUSEDThePulse Sensor unitThe Heartbeat sensor is a monitoringsystem that allows one to measure his or her heart rate in real time or recordthe heart rate for later study and analysis.
It provides a simple way to studythe functioning of heart. This sensor monitors the flow of blood through thefinger and gives digital output of the heartbeat when a finger is placed on it.When the sensor is working, the beat LED flashes in units on with eachheartbeat.
This digital output can be connected to the microcontroller directlyto measure the Beats per Minute (BPM) value. This works on the principle oflight modulation,where blood flow through finger at each pulse. The PulseSensor is a well designed plug and play heart rate sensor for Arduino. It alsoincludes an open source monitoring app that graphs your pulse in real time andsend the data to cloud.TheArduino Uno BoardThe Arduino Uno is a microcontrollerboard based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins(of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramicresonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button.It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller;AndroidsmartphoneA smart band will be connected to theandroid phone by Bluetooth. The band will be transmitting the data to thesmartphone by the help of Bluetooth.
In the android smartphone user has toinstall android application which will be collecting the data from the smartband through cloud.This application will monitor the user’shealth and will keep a record of it. When the user’s heartbeat is above thecritical level, then it will send emergency notification to the saved contacts.The user has to enter the details like contact number, that will be used incase of emergency.
The application will also notify to the ambulance service.The smart band will be monitoring the heartbeat of the user and changes thecritical level according to it or it can be manually entered by the user, ascritical level varies from person to person. Notifying the emergencycontactThe user has to enter details of the contacts, whomthe application will alert during emergency cases. It is also recommended toadd the details of ambulance and doctor’s in case of emergency. The applicationwill use SMS to alert the emergency contacts. Whenever the user’s heart rate isin critical level the android application will send notification to allemergency contacts.
CONCLUSIONS We are developing a system which able to detect anyfluctuation in heart beat and heart attack by tracking heartbeat of a user incoming future as the technology gets advance more feature will be added to thesystem. Long waiting time for hospitalization or ambulatory patientmonitoring/treatment, areother well-known issues for both the healthcare institutions and the patients.This project provides healthcare authorities to maximize the quality and effectivehealthcare services by controlling costs. This proposedsystem will help all age group people to track their heart rate and in case ofany necessity it will notify to emergency contact and to the hospital. It canalso be used by the users who have just under gone to heart surgery to keeptract of their heart beats throughout the day. Heart beat readings are by far the only viable diagnostic toolthat could promote early detection of cardiac events.
Wireless components andmobile technologies are key components that would help enable patientssuffering from chronic heart diseases to live in their own homes and lead theirnormal life, while at the same time being monitored for any cardiac events andcan be effectively managed. This will not only serve to reduce the burden onthe resources of the healthcare center but would also improve the quality ofhealthcare sector. In this project, the heart beatrate of the patient is sensed. When the implant detects a heart beat rate, itwill alert the mobile device which in turn will automatically send the messageand provide the patient’s condition and its profile so that the patient will begiven respective medical attention within the first few critical hours, thusgreatly improving his or her chances of survival. This algorithm deals onlywith single patient. This algorithm can be extended to multiple doctors andmultiple patients.
In future we can also design PC software to analyze thisreceived signal and generate the report and this can be sent back to thedoctor. With the connection established between two ends we can also sendpatient’s blood pressure to doctor’s side. REFERENCES1internet of things: internet of things, https://en. wikipedia.
org/wiki/internet_of_things. 2 effective ways to use internet of things in thefield of medical and smart health care: kaleem ullah,munam ali shah,sijingzhang, ieee journal 2016 3 irehmo: an efficient iot-based remote healthmonitoring system for smart regions, ngo manh kohi, karan mitra , 2015 17thinternational conference on e-health networking, application & services(healthcom) 4 mobile based horne automation using internet ofthings(iot), kumar mandula, ram parupalli, e.magesh , 2015 internationalconference on control, lnstrumentation, communication and computationaltechnologies (lccicct) 5 heartbeat monitoring and alert system using gsmtechnology, ufaraoh s.u,oranugo c.o, international journal of engineeringresearch and general science volume 3, issue 4, july-august, 2015 issn2091-2730 6 heart rate monitoring and heart attack detection,mamidi manisha, katakan neeraja, international journal of innovations inengineering and technology (ijiet) 7 myocardial infarction: https://en. wikipedia.