SYMBIOSIS INSTITUTE OFINTERNATIONAL BUSINESS, PUNEMBA(AB)-2016-18 A Study to find out thechallenges and opportunities of Biofertilizers in the Baramati region SUBMITEDBY – NITIN ZAGADE(16020242027) SUBMITED TO – Dr. SHUBHANGI SALOKHE IntroductionBio-fertilizerBio-fertilizer is a substance which contains live orlatent cells of micro-organisms which are applied to seeds or plants or soilsto fix different nutrients and make available to the plant.
There are differenttypes of bio fertilizers used like Azatobactor, Acetobactor, Azospirrilum, PSb,KSB etc. · RhizobiumRhizobium are symbiotic bacteria that fixatmospheric N gas in plant root nodules and have a mutual relationship with thehost plants. The plant roots supply essential nutrients and synthesizedsubstance to the bacteria. · AzotobactorsIt is free living and non-symbiotic N fixingorganism that also produces certain substances for the growth of plants andantibodies to suppress many root pathogens.
Azotobacter can also produceantifungal compounds to kill plant pathogens. · AzospirillumThis is also a N fixing micro organism which is beneficialfor non-leguminous plants. Azospirillum transfers nitrogen enrichment throughproduction of growth promoting compounds · Phosphate-solubilizingbacteria (PSB) Under acidic or calcareous soil conditions, largeamounts of phosphorus is fixed in the soil but unavailable to the plants.Phosphobacterins can make insoluble P available to the plant. · Vesiculararbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) VAM fungi infect inside the root.
They has special structures known as vesicles andarbuscules. The plant roots transmit substances to the fungi, and the fungihelps in transmission of nutrients and water to the plant roots. Bio-Fertilizer in India Major Companies In Bio-FertilizerBusiness1. Coromandel Fertilizers2. Hindustan Biotech3. Ajay Biotech4. Tata Rallies5. Saraswati Agro6.
International Biotech7. Amar Biotech8. Biostadt9. KVK’s Profile of Baramati Taluka – · The totalgeographical area (TGA) of Baramati tahsil is 1382 sq.
km., which is about 8.80percent of TGA of the Pune district. Thepopulation of Baramati as per the census of 2011 is 54,415.
among them about 28thousand (51%) are male and about 27 thousand (49%) are female. · Thepopulation of baramati is mostly depend on the agriculture for the major incomesource. The land of the baramati region is well irrigated because of the Niraleft canal, Nira river and karhamai river. · Themajor crops grown in the area are Sugarcane. Jowar, Wheat, Maize, Grapes andPomegranate. Among this Sugarcane is the major crop because there are threesugar factories namely Chatrapati sugar factory in Bhavani-Nagar, MalegaonCo-op sugar factory Malegaon and Someshwar sugar Factory someshwarNagar.
· Alongwith that due to the presence of KVK near baramati is helping a farmer throughvarious new technologies and solutions which is the great contributor in the agriculturaldevelopment of Baramati .Major Crops Name of Crop Percent area Jowar 20 Sugarcane 21.25 Bajara 19.2 Wheat 15.76 Fodder crops 12.71 Oilseeds 2.85 Pulses 3.08 Fruits 4 Vegetables 2 Listof Villages in Baramati Tehsil Review of Literature · Naidu (2002) recorded the influence of organic ,chemical and biofertilizers on growth, yield and economics of brinjal.
Theyobserved that organic manure when applied in conjunction with Azospirillum yieldedgreater with higher girth over nitrogen with organic manure. · It is due to better mobilization of nutrients like N and P during later stage ofplant growth. It also noticed that application of organic manure in combinationwith Azospirillum yielded at par with N . · Sharma (2002) studied the effect ofAzospirillum and different doses of N on yield of cabbage. The treatmentsincluded 3 levels of biofertilizers and 4 levels of N. Azospirillum application increased the number and weight ofnon-wrapper leaves per plant, and width, gross and net weight of head per plantand yield.
A treatment combination of Azospirillum application with 60 kg N/haresult in maximum yields/ha. · In a study conducted by Devi et (2003) on cabbage, it was revealed among the varioustreatments includes application of poultry manure and biofertilizers withAzospirillum could save 25 per centnitrogen where cost benefit ratio was 1:4.30. · Gupta and Samnotr (2004) reported 25 percent reduction in N application when Azotobacter and Azospirillum were used asthe organic source of N in cabbage. ResearchProblem1. Due to excess use of chemicalfertilizers the lands are degrading day by day.2. Environment is getting affected due touse of chemical fertilizers3.
So there is need of find out thechallenges and opportunities for use of Bio-fertilizers.Objectives1. To find out how many farmers are usingthe Bio-fertilizers2. To study farmers awareness aboutBio-fertilizers3.
To find out the challenges for use ofBio-fertilizers in Baramati Region4. What are the opportunities forBiofertilizer in the study area Backgroundof the Study· After GreenRevolution in India the agricultural production booms at a very high rate dueto the use of chemical fertilizers and new varieties. From that time the whole Indiadiverted to the use of chemicals in agriculture and it benefitted a lot, but itshowing the negative impact of that in current situation on productivity ofland, Degradation of land, Quality of produce etc.· But thedependence of agriculture on chemical uses will harm the agriculture to agreater extent and loss the soil quality.· For that theGovernment of India promoting the use of Bio-fertilizers in agriculture. TheseBio-fertilizers have multiple benefits on the soil and it is also easy to useand cheaper in price.
· TheseBio-fertilizers are naturally occurring in nature and used 100 years ago as anaturally occurring manure, In ancient times farmers were using but they don’tknow the composition but they use to apply in field and they known its benefits.· But in recentyears the agriculture is went towards chemicals which are synthetic andprepared in the chemical laboratories, it increased a yield but in recent 10years it is showing negative impact on different factors like soil,environment, human health, animal health and on future growth also.· Due to that thefarmers are again interested in Bio-fertilizers as a option for syntheticchemical fertilizers. Research Methodology · The studyincludes the farmers survey against the Awareness, use, problems inBio-fertilizers use was carried out in Month of December 2017.· The topic wasselected with the discussion with mentor with the some objectives. Objectivesof survey are to find the awareness and use of Bio-fertilizers in the Baramatiregion.
Sources of DataPrimary and Secondarydata is collected to meet the specified objectives of the research PrimaryData· Primary datawere collected from the farmers of different villages with the help ofQuestionnaire. The questions like Land holding, Crops grown, Bio-fertilizersusing or not, reasons for not using ofBio-fertilizers, which Bio-fertilizers used, Reasons, Benefits ofBio-fertilizer using, Awareness of Bio-fertilizers etc.· And also askedfor their suggestions on Bio-fertilizers and what needs to be done to improvethe use of Bio-fertilizers.
Secondary Data· Secondary dataabout Bio-fertilizers were collected from different websites, governmentwebsites, pages and research papers to know the sector very well and to see thewhat happened in the recent years. Sampling MethodFor the researchBaramati region has been selected and from Baramati taluka 10 villages has beenselected and from each village 15 farmers were selected randomly for the study. Sample sizeFrom the Baramatiregion randomly 10 villages has been selected and from each village 15 farmersselected on random basis.So total sample size is150 farmers for the study as a representative sample. Villages Selected Malad Niravagaj Karhati Pimpli Mekhali Dorlewadi Malegaon Gokhali Gunvadi Supe Research MethodA structuredquestionnaire were prepared with the help of faculty mentor to record theinformation given by the farmers . Questionnaire was filled by myself as perinformation given by the farmers.
Tools used for Analysis1. Microsoft Excelfor entry of Data2. Use of differentcharts and bars to show the results. Questionnaire Data AnalysisIn baramati region nearabout 80% land under the use of chemical fertilizers and remaining 20% is underthe use of Bio-fertilizers.Land Holding of Farmers Name Land Holding Marginal <1 Ha Small 1-2 Ha Medium 2-5 Ha Large >5 Ha · The graph showsthat the maximum farmers having land holding of small (less than 1 Ha) i.e.
55% · 45% farmershaving medium land holding i.e.2-5 Ha.
· The land holdingis more per farmer in the baramati region due to the very well irrigationfacilities, market availability, due to this farmers having more land holding.These large farmers are come under the innovators in rogers model so thesefarmers can use Bio-fertilizers in the future. Users and Non-users of Biofertilizers · It shows thatthere are only 23% farmers are using Bio-fertilizers which are medium and largefarmers.
· And 77% farmersare not using Bio-fertilizers because of many reasons like non awareness,Availability etc. · But there aregood opportunities for fertilizer companies to cater to this segment. Which Companies Bio-fertilizers farmers are Using · In baramatiregion maximum farmers using the Bio-fertilizers of KVK Baramati because themaximum awareness made by them and every farmer is connected with KVK.
· The othercompanies having very little share in Bio-fertilizers. · Baramati KVK isproviding guidance along with Bio-fertilizers that’s why the farmers are moreusing the KVK given products . Reasons for Using Biofertilizers · Many farmers areusing the Bio-fertilizers because of the high yield they are getting by usingBio-fertilizers, some farmers are using because they are getting at lowerprices than the chemical fertilizers, some are using because it is convenientin using and many farmers has given the other minor reasons · When they useBio-fertilizers the Bio-fertilizer fixes the atmospheric nitrogen, fixes thephosphate with minimum cost and increases yield upto 30%. · Due to this 15%farmers are using because of higher yield. Major crops in which Bio-fertilizers are used · In baramatiregion major Bio-fertilizer use is in the Sugarcane crop due to maximum farmersare growing the sugarcane and it is showing good results in the sugarcane crop. · Second most usein the pomegranate and on small scale use in the jowar, maize and grapes. Awareness of Bio-fertilizers · In baramatiregion awareness of Bio-fertilizers is 63%. Still there 37% farmers are unaware about Bio-fertilizers.
· Because manyfarmers are Illiterate , they don’t have access to new technologies orpractices coming in · So in thisregion need of conducting awareness campaigns. How farmers get Aware of Bio-fertilizers · In this regionmajor awareness made by the KVK Baramati, Biggest contribution in theBiofertilizer is made by the KVK Baramati. · In some amountdealers and co farmers are making awareness among the fellow farmers. · It is showingthat KVK is working very well in Bio-fertilizer sector Reasons for not using Bio-fertilizer · There are manyreasons among the farmers for not using of Biofertilizers.
· The main reasonis availability in the nearby areas with the dealers . If the Bio-fertilizersare available with the near dealers farmers are ready to use it. · Another majorproblems are No awareness among the farmers and some farmers are saying it isnot giving any results.
· And few farmersare saying the prices of Bio-fertilizers are very high and it is not givingresults up to the mark. Summary and Conclusion · In this regionnear about 40% farmers having Medium and Large land holding (2-5 Ha and Morethan 5 Ha), It shows that there is greater opportunity for development ofBio-fertilizers business in this region. · In this areaonly 23% of farmers using the Bio-fertilizers on their field, and the mainreason for the non using is Lack of awareness, Unavailability in near by dealerstore etc. · Out of thefarmer who are using maximum farmers are saying that they are using because ofthe good results and less price · Some figures arevery surprising like awareness of bio-fertilizers, 63% farmers are not awareabout the bio-fertilizers use and its advantages. · The major sharein Bio-fertilizer use is of the sugarcane growing farmers, · TheBio-fertilizers of the KVK Baramati are the most used Bio-fertilizers in thisarea because of availability and guidance given by the KVK Baramati. · The many farmersare not get convinced about the advantages of Bio-fertilizers, their perceptionabout Bio-fertilizers is that it acts very slowly and not give the goodresults.
· If the farmersget bio-fertilizers available easily they are ready to use the Bio-fertilizers. · If the companiesdo the extension activities for promotion of Bio-fertilizers there will begreater scope for the Bio-fertilizer Industries. · The promotionalactivities like Method demonstration, Result demonstration, Farmer meeting,focused group discussions etc.
· Theopportunities for Bio-fertilizer industries are increasing due to the comingtrend of Organic farming. For organic cultivation many farmers are going foruse of Bio-fertilizers