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A Study to find out the
challenges and opportunities of Biofertilizers in the Baramati region














Bio-fertilizer is a substance which contains live or
latent cells of micro-organisms which are applied to seeds or plants or soils
to fix different nutrients and make available to the plant. There are different
types of bio fertilizers used like Azatobactor, Acetobactor, Azospirrilum, PSb,
KSB etc.




Rhizobium are symbiotic bacteria that fix
atmospheric N gas in plant root nodules and have a mutual relationship with the
host plants. The plant roots supply essential nutrients and synthesized
substance to the bacteria.


It is free living and non-symbiotic N fixing
organism that also produces certain substances for the growth of plants and
antibodies to suppress many root pathogens. Azotobacter can also produce
antifungal compounds to kill plant pathogens.


This is also a N fixing micro organism which is beneficial
for non-leguminous plants. Azospirillum transfers nitrogen enrichment through
production of growth promoting compounds

bacteria (PSB)

Under acidic or calcareous soil conditions, large
amounts of phosphorus is fixed in the soil but unavailable to the plants.
Phosphobacterins can make insoluble P available to the plant.




arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM)

VAM fungi infect 
inside the root. They has special structures known as vesicles and
arbuscules. The plant roots transmit substances to the fungi, and the fungi
helps in transmission of nutrients and water to the plant roots.










Bio-Fertilizer in India


Major Companies In Bio-Fertilizer

Coromandel Fertilizers

Hindustan Biotech

Ajay Biotech

Tata Rallies

Saraswati Agro

International Biotech

Amar Biotech





Profile of Baramati Taluka
















The total
geographical area (TGA) of Baramati tahsil is 1382 sq. km., which is about 8.80
percent of TGA of the Pune district. The
population of Baramati as per the census of 2011 is 54,415. among them about 28
thousand (51%) are male and about 27 thousand (49%) are female.

population of baramati is mostly depend on the agriculture for the major income
source. The land of the baramati region is well irrigated because of the Nira
left canal, Nira river and karhamai river.

major crops grown in the area are Sugarcane. Jowar, Wheat, Maize, Grapes and
Pomegranate. Among this Sugarcane is the major crop because there are three
sugar factories namely Chatrapati sugar factory in Bhavani-Nagar, Malegaon
Co-op sugar factory Malegaon and Someshwar sugar Factory someshwarNagar.

with that due to the presence of KVK near baramati is helping a farmer through
various new technologies and solutions which is the great contributor in the agricultural
development of Baramati .

Major Crops

Name of Crop

Percent area









Fodder crops

















of Villages in Baramati Tehsil


Review of Literature


Naidu  (2002) recorded the influence of organic ,
chemical and biofertilizers on growth, yield and economics of brinjal. They
observed that organic manure when applied in conjunction with Azospirillum yielded
greater with higher girth over nitrogen with organic manure.


It is due to better mobilization of  nutrients like N and P during later stage of
plant growth. It also noticed that application of organic manure in combination
with Azospirillum yielded at par with N .


Sharma (2002) studied the effect of
Azospirillum and different doses of N on yield of cabbage. The treatments
included 3 levels of biofertilizers and 4 levels of N. Azospirillum application
 increased the number and weight of
non-wrapper leaves per plant, and width, gross and net weight of head per plant
and yield. A treatment combination of Azospirillum application with 60 kg N/ha
result in maximum yields/ha.


In a study conducted by Devi et  (2003) on cabbage, it was revealed among the various
treatments includes application of poultry manure and biofertilizers with
Azospirillum  could save 25 per cent
nitrogen where cost benefit ratio was 1:4.30.


Gupta and Samnotr (2004) reported 25 per
cent reduction in N application when Azotobacter and Azospirillum were used as
the organic source of N in cabbage.






Due to excess use of chemical
fertilizers the lands are degrading day by day.

Environment is getting affected due to
use of chemical fertilizers

So there is need of find out the
challenges and opportunities for use of Bio-fertilizers.


To find out how many farmers are using
the Bio-fertilizers

To study farmers awareness about

To find out the challenges for use of
Bio-fertilizers in Baramati Region

What are the opportunities for
Biofertilizer in the study area


of the Study

After Green
Revolution in India the agricultural production booms at a very high rate due
to the use of chemical fertilizers and new varieties. From that time the whole India
diverted to the use of chemicals in agriculture and it benefitted a lot, but it
showing the negative impact of that in current situation on productivity of
land, Degradation of land, Quality of produce etc.

But the
dependence of agriculture on chemical uses will harm the agriculture to a
greater extent and loss the soil quality.

For that the
Government of India promoting the use of Bio-fertilizers in agriculture. These
Bio-fertilizers have multiple benefits on the soil and it is also easy to use
and cheaper in price.

Bio-fertilizers are naturally occurring in nature and used 100 years ago as a
naturally occurring manure, In ancient times farmers were using but they don’t
know the composition but they use to apply in field and they known its benefits.

But in recent
years the agriculture is went towards chemicals which are synthetic and
prepared in the chemical laboratories, it increased a yield but in recent 10
years it is showing negative impact on different factors like soil,
environment, human health, animal health and 
on future growth also.

Due to that the
farmers are again interested in Bio-fertilizers as a option for synthetic
chemical fertilizers.


Research Methodology


The study
includes the farmers survey against the Awareness, use, problems in
Bio-fertilizers use was carried out in Month of December 2017.

The topic was
selected with the discussion with mentor with the some objectives. Objectives
of survey are to find the awareness and use of Bio-fertilizers in the Baramati


Sources of Data

Primary and Secondary
data is collected to meet the specified objectives of the research


Primary data
were collected from the farmers of different villages with the help of
Questionnaire. The questions like Land holding, Crops grown, Bio-fertilizers
using or not, reasons for not using  of
Bio-fertilizers, which Bio-fertilizers used, Reasons, Benefits of
Bio-fertilizer using, Awareness of Bio-fertilizers etc.

And also asked
for their suggestions on Bio-fertilizers and what needs to be done to improve
the use of Bio-fertilizers.

Secondary Data

Secondary data
about Bio-fertilizers were collected from different websites, government
websites, pages and research papers to know the sector very well and to see the
what  happened in the recent years.


Sampling Method

For the research
Baramati region has been selected and from Baramati taluka 10 villages has been
selected and from each village 15 farmers were selected randomly for the study.


Sample size

From the Baramati
region randomly 10 villages has been selected and from each village 15 farmers
selected on random basis.

So total sample size is
150 farmers for the study as a representative sample.

Villages Selected














Research Method

A structured
questionnaire were prepared with the help of faculty mentor to record the
information given by the farmers . Questionnaire was filled by myself as per
information given by the farmers.  


Tools used for Analysis

Microsoft Excel
for entry of Data

Use of different
charts and bars to show the results.






Data Analysis

In baramati region near
about 80% land under the use of chemical fertilizers and remaining 20% is under
the use of Bio-fertilizers.

Land Holding of Farmers




<1 Ha Small 1-2 Ha Medium 2-5 Ha Large >5



The graph shows
that the maximum farmers having land holding of small (less than 1 Ha) i.e. 55%


45% farmers
having medium land holding i.e.2-5 Ha.



The land holding
is more per farmer in the baramati region due to the very well irrigation
facilities, market availability, due to this farmers having more land holding.
These large farmers are come under the innovators in rogers model so these
farmers can use Bio-fertilizers in the future.


Users and Non-users of Biofertilizers



It shows that
there are only 23% farmers are using Bio-fertilizers which are medium and large


And 77% farmers
are not using Bio-fertilizers because of many reasons like non awareness,
Availability etc.



But there are
good opportunities for fertilizer companies to cater to this segment.






Which Companies Bio-fertilizers farmers are Using




In baramati
region maximum farmers using the Bio-fertilizers of KVK Baramati because the
maximum awareness made by them and every farmer is connected with KVK.


The other
companies having very little share in Bio-fertilizers.



Baramati KVK is
providing guidance along with Bio-fertilizers that’s why the farmers are more
using the KVK given products .



Reasons for Using Biofertilizers





Many farmers are
using the Bio-fertilizers because of the high yield they are getting by using
Bio-fertilizers, some farmers are using because they are getting at lower
prices than the chemical fertilizers, some are using because it is convenient
in using and many farmers has given the other minor reasons


When they use
Bio-fertilizers the Bio-fertilizer fixes the atmospheric nitrogen, fixes the
phosphate with minimum cost and increases yield upto 30%.



Due to this 15%
farmers are using because of higher yield.


Major crops in which Bio-fertilizers are used





In baramati
region major Bio-fertilizer use is in the Sugarcane crop due to maximum farmers
are growing the sugarcane and it is showing good results in the sugarcane crop.


Second most use
in the pomegranate and on small scale use in the jowar, maize and grapes.






Awareness of 



In baramati
region awareness of Bio-fertilizers is 63%. Still there 37%  farmers are unaware about Bio-fertilizers.


Because many
farmers are Illiterate , they don’t have access to new technologies or
practices coming in



So in this
region need of conducting awareness campaigns.








How farmers get Aware of Bio-fertilizers



In this region
major awareness made by the KVK Baramati, Biggest contribution in the
Biofertilizer is made by the KVK Baramati.


In some amount
dealers and co farmers are making awareness among the fellow farmers.



It is showing
that KVK is working very well in Bio-fertilizer sector





Reasons for not using Bio-fertilizer



There are many
reasons among the farmers for not using of Biofertilizers.


The main reason
is availability in the nearby areas with the dealers . If the Bio-fertilizers
are available with the near dealers farmers are ready to use it.



Another major
problems are No awareness among the farmers and some farmers are saying it is
not giving any results.


And few farmers
are saying the prices of Bio-fertilizers are very high and it is not giving
results up to the mark.






Summary and Conclusion


In this region
near about 40% farmers having Medium and Large land holding (2-5 Ha and More
than 5 Ha), It shows that there is greater opportunity for development of
Bio-fertilizers business in this region.


In this area
only 23% of farmers using the Bio-fertilizers on their field, and the main
reason for the non using is Lack of awareness, Unavailability in near by dealer
store etc.


Out of the
farmer who are using maximum farmers are saying that they are using because of
the good results and less price


Some figures are
very surprising like awareness of bio-fertilizers, 63% farmers are not aware
about the bio-fertilizers use and its advantages.


The major share
in Bio-fertilizer use is of the sugarcane growing farmers,


Bio-fertilizers of the KVK Baramati are the most used Bio-fertilizers in this
area because of availability and guidance given by the KVK Baramati.


The many farmers
are not get convinced about the advantages of Bio-fertilizers, their perception
about Bio-fertilizers is that it acts very slowly and not give the good


If the farmers
get bio-fertilizers available easily they are ready to use the Bio-fertilizers.


If the companies
do the extension activities for promotion of Bio-fertilizers there will be
greater scope for the Bio-fertilizer Industries.


The promotional
activities like Method demonstration, Result demonstration, Farmer meeting,
focused group discussions etc.


opportunities for Bio-fertilizer industries are increasing due to the coming
trend of Organic farming. For organic cultivation many farmers are going for
use of Bio-fertilizers


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