Students who use virtual learning platforms outlines that motivation,  technical knowledge and design of the course are the most important factors to be successful in online course (Song, L., Singleton, E.S., Hill, J.R. & Koh, M.H.).  Lack of physical contact with other learners and teachers creates social isolation effect among students who use e-learning services. Because lack of emotional contact, virtual learning systems should provide other ways how to engage and motivate students.Although literature covers a wide variety of motivational theories, this review will focus mostly on process called gamification which can incorporate methods of traditional motivation theories such as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation or goal setting theory.Goal setting theoryPeople are more engaged in learning if they are reaching for goals. Song et al. (2004) conducted a study and outlined that design of the course for students should have clearly stated objectives and goals, as well as effective instructional design. Another similar study conducted by Paechter, Maier and Macher (2010) points out that students will be more willing to learn and spend more time to achieve goals which have higher value. That’s why it is important for instructor to make learning objectives transparent and to provide self testing opportunities to measure progress throughout the whole course. Students are more interested to improve their performance if feedback of their progress is present.  Locke (1996) has documented what has been found during 30 years of research on goal setting theory. One of his findings was that giving feedback which displays progress associated with goal increases effect of goal setting. People often unconsciously challenge themselves when provided with feedback on their own progress because they want improve their result or beat achievements of others. However, this is not always the case and sometimes effect can be opposite because it can depend on the goals itself.It is easier to achieve those goals which are numeric. Another important finding by Locke is that goals which are more specific leads to more control over performance. Specific goals, in most cases, are those which are described using quantification, for instance, increase income by 5% or enumeration, for example, list of tasks which has to be done.When the person is given more control over performance variance of achievement is reduced. Moreover, (Ling et al., 2005) has found out that people perform better if given specific numeric goals than non-specific do-your-best ones. Flow Theory of MotivationOne of the most popular theories of motivation is state of flow. The main concept of this theory is that when learning in a state of flow people are very concentrated and forget about everything else like their surroundings, sense of time etc. (Csikszentmihalyi 1991). Being in this state person forgets about hunger, fatigue or discomfort in order to progress with the task without any interruptions. NC02. There are two requirements to reach state of flow. Firstly the person has to be skillful for the task and secondly the task itself has to be challenging. Otherwise, if the task is too challenging and the person is not skillful enough it would lead to anxiety or if the one have the skills needed but the task is not challenging it would lead to boredom.NC02. It is still not very clear how state of flow can be used to motivate learners in virtual learning environments, nevertheless there are some empirical studies already which shows significant findings about connecting flow and learning. (Choi, Kim, & Kim, 2007) conducted a study within web-based virtual learning system and found that flow provides positive learning outcomes. It also discovered correlation between flow experience, learning There are many different definitions of motivation created by many scientists and researchers but they are quite distinct from each other and usually represent different theories of motivation. Vocabularies usually defines motivation as a desire to do any action or to behave in particular way.  Similary, Kast and Rosenzweig (1979: 244) defined motivation as “what perhaps prompts a person to act in a certain way or at least develop a propensity for specific behaviour.” or (Guay et al., 2010, p. 712) refers to motivation as “the reasons underlying behavior”. Despite some of these definitions look different, the broad perception is that, motivation is an internal process that moves people to behave or take actions in order to reach their goals. It is important to mention that motivation can be intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal desire which is created because of personal enjoyment or interest in the task itself. As Deci et al. (1999) observe, “intrinsic motivation energizes and sustains activities through the spontaneous satisfactions inherent in effective volitional action. It is manifest in behaviors such as play, exploration, and challenge seeking that people often do for external rewards” (p. 658). Extrinsic motivation is opposite of the intrinsic motivation, it arises from external factors such as rewards, fear of punishment or competition. Usually extrinsic motivation is used to attain outcomes that a person wouldn’t get from intrinsic motivation (Ryan et al 2000). To motivate students and engage them into virtual learning activities it is important to take both types of motivation into consideration.Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation is when actions are taken not to get the desired outcome but because activity inherent satisfactions. (deci2000)Tasks which require manipulation, information processing, or exploration usually causes intrinsic motivation. (Deci & Ryan, 1985).  In a state of flow  the most appreciable effect is the motivational enhancement that occurs during that state and it is related to intrinsic motivation. When experiencing flow, person go on with the task simply because of the enjoyment which the task provides. (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).A task experience with these characteristics is best described as autotelic. An autotelic task is performed solely for its own sake, requiring no extrinsic reward. (?) Extrinsic motivation is when person is doing activity because he wants to gain certain benefits or rewards. Perceived usefulness (PU) refers to ”the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her performance” 14. .. . Davis et al stated that perceived usefulness using technology is the main factor of usage intentions and that it is an example of extrinsic motivation. For example, the expected utility benefits of virtual learning system are expected to increase student will to use it.From an extrinsic motivational perspective, behavior is driven by its perceived values and benefits derived. Perceived usefulness (PU) refers to ”the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her performance” 14. Perceived usefulness indeed explains the utility values for system usage. Davis et al. and others also urged that perceived usefulness in the technology acceptance model is an example of extrinsic motivation. Perceived usefulness is a key driver of usage behavior and intentions. Here, the perceived utility values of ILM are expected to affect student intention to use it.focusing mainly on functional or extrinsic motivational drivers such as usefulness and ease-of-use. In the context of student acceptance of ILM, we believe intrinsic motivators grounded on emotional feeling, such as happiness and unhappiness, joy and frustration, pity and anger, etc., also play a crucial role in explaining user acceptance and usage. As argued by Davis et al. 13 and others 24,35,36, the adoption of new technology is predominantly determined by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators.To analyse how students’ accept internet virtual learning environment. This study Matthew K.O. Lee conducted a study to analyse students acceptance of an internet-based learning system. This study used Davis’s technology acceptance model and expanded it to capture extrinsic(perceived usefulness) and intrinsic motivators(perceived enjoyment) for explaining students’ intention to use the new learning system. Undergraduate students have been introduced with the system at the start of semester and were asked to complete a questionnaire. 544  answers were analysed in the research. The results showed that students will to use the system was affected by both perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment factors. Based on these results researchers defined guidelines and suggestions for design of virtual learning systems. Firstly, course information should be displayed using rich multimedia capabilities such as images, sounds and text  to make it easier to understand and use course material. Secondly, learning materials should involve quizzes,  games and other creative ways which creates fun in usage of virtual learning environment. For example,  Csikszentmihalyi stated that most of flow experience occurs when user is intristicaly motivated and involved in challenging  tasks. Thirdly, virtual learning system should provide immediate feedback which would help to correct misunderstood material. It can help learners to better understand the course and to enhance their usage experience. Finally, virtual learning environment should encourage interaction by creating sense of community. Students may be naturally motivated to feel connected to others within learning environment. Incorporating social elements such as chat rooms and discussion board should encourage student collaboration, and therefore, increase student motivation to use the system.Self-Efficacy Theory Self-efficacy theory states that people are more likely to be motivated to complete a task or engage in behavior if they believe in their ability. (Payne, Youngcourt, & Beaubien, 2007).Choice of activities, effort, persistence and achievement is influenced by self-efficacy  Bandura (1977a). Individuals with high self-efficacy for achieving certain outcomes participate more, work harder, persist longer when they en-counter difficulties than those who doubt their capabilities. Forms of persuasion, Observational experiences, performance results and other reactions contribute to evaluation of self-efficacy. Successful results boost self-efficacy and failures lower it, but when a strong solid feel of efficacy is developed a failure might not have much impact (Bandura, 1986). Moreover, individuals compare themselves to others to gain self-efficacy information. People who look at their peers who are doing the same task believe that they are too capable of doing it. To remain credible, however, information acquired vicariously requires validation by actual performance(Wu, Tennyson and Hsia, 2010) Conducted a study to determine how student learning satisfactions was affected by factors: self-efficacy and performance expectations, technological environment, and social environment in blended e-learning system.ARCS modelKeller(1979, 1983) developed the arcs model which is based upon the macro theory of motivation and instructional design. For several years, This model have been tested to benefit educators in a systematic process  for analyzing learner motivation and designing motivational tactics  for analyzing learner motivation and designing motivational tactics and integrated with teaching/learning strategies. ARCS model based on its acronym and consists of four areas: attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction. Students’ attention has to be gained and sustained by teaching methodology.  Keller (2004) suggests that it is very important to use variety of tactics to get learners attention. These tactics can include interesting graphics or animation. Furthermore, attention can be stimulated by creating sense of exploration with unresolved problems or using mystery. Variability is also important factor because people get used and become bored after sometime even when they are doing tasks which seem very interesting at first. Varying approaches and change in tactics helps to sustain attention.The second area of ARCS model is relevance. It is very important for students that their goals are compatible with their learning styles, connected to their past experiences and consistent with instructional requirements. Relevance is based on defined clear goals. They can be extrinsic and formulated, for example, in order to get the desired opportunity one must pass the course, but motivation is bigger when student is motivated intrinsically i.e. when student is acting because he wants to ant it is interesting for him. Intrinsic motivation like this is, again, example of self-determination  (Deci & Ryan, 1985) which creates sustained goal-orientated behavior. Thus, relevance results from connecting the content of instruction to the learners’ future job or academic requirements or to intrinsically interesting topics. For example, secondary school children enjoy reading stories with themes of stigma, popularity and isolation, because these are important issues at that time of their lives. In recent years it has been popular to refer to these aspects of relevance as ‘authentic’ learning experiences, which is a concept from constructivist literature (Duffy et al., 1993). The third condition required for motivation is confidence. It can be achieved by creating conditions in which students understand that their abilities and efforts caused their success rather than luck or the task difficulty. (Weiner, 1974).If the the person thinks that luck was the only reason for success it is not going to increase person’s confidence. Some of the most popular theories of motivation such as self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) and attribution theory (Weiner, 1974)  includes this type of confidence as well .The last component of ARCS model is satisfaction which mean that students should have positive feelings about their learning experiences. Thus, rewards, recognition and other extrinsic motivators has to be used and should not have negative effect on intrinsic motivation (Condry, 1977). Personal rewards combined with ability to apply what one has learned enhances satisfaction.  Finally, a sense of equity or fairness is important (Adams, 1965). Students must feel that the amount of work required by the course was appropriate, that there was internal consistency between objectives, content and tests and that there was no favoritism in gradingPrirasyt apie lack of methods for stimulating motivation ir recent studies.


I'm Erica!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out