strategies that would alleviate the risk posed by thesecircumstances. Certain rural communities in the Philippines, in particular, aremore vulnerable posed by the high risks of disaster brought about by thegeographical location of their given community. In a similar study, Baan etal.
, (2010) argue that along with disaster management, improving humanitarianrecovery and mitigation of casualties and flood damages are necessary for asociety’s preparation.A large number of civilians lack the proper educationregarding flood preparation and risk reduction that are evident in certaincommunities due to the geographical setting of our country. In a study byRambau et al.
, (2012), the researchers determine that education greatlycontributes to hazard awareness and disaster preparedness among indigent communitiesin South Africa. Through the administration of disaster preparedness campaignsin institutions, the study reveals that informal communities are morevulnerable to accumulating disasters on their given settlements. In a casestudy conducted by Iglesias (2010), the researcher states that emergencyresponse equipment, such as life vests and electricity generators aresubstantial tools in increasing the risk reduction against natural disasters orhazards, along with safety action planning between communities. People are more vulnerable to accumulating injuries oncenatural disasters occur. Doocy et al.
, (2013) claim that flood related -mortality is a natural factor caused by the devastation of floods and the like.Floods are the leading cause of deaths acquired from natural disasters in theworld garnering 6.8 million deaths over the past centuries, according to theprevious study. Floods are often correlated to the cause of other hazards,specifically in landslides and debris flow. According to a previous study, Loweet al., (2013) suggest that examining risk factors of injuries and mortalityincorporates flood adverse health prevention strategies. Hence, with the lackof resilience and preparation among individuals, the acquisition of injuries, mortality and morbidity rates continue toincrease through the years.
Flooding is the predominant cause of the highest percentageof casualties and injuries over the past decade. With the lack of propereducation and awareness amongst communities, people are more likely toaccumulate these injuries, that eventually develops to a high mortality rate.Ohl et al.
, (2000) assert that most floods occur in developing sectors, wherethe impact on public health is substantial, the number of people dislocated islarge, and the number of deaths is high. Though most casualties in flood resultfrom drowning or the physical properties of the disaster, the researchers haveobserved that the aftermath of a flood prompts deaths and injuries determinedby the prevailing socioeconomic and health conditions of the given communitysuch as endemic infectious diseases. Specific diseases such as diarrhea,cholera, respiratory infections, Hepatitis, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, anddiseases transmittable by insects have arisen after the occurrence of floods indeveloping areas. With the insufficient supplies of food, malnutrition can beacquired in these areas, thus Fenn (2013) states that it aggravates the effectsof the said diseases.Over the years, emergency planning and flood preparednessprograms have been implemented and developed in different areas. Severalinstitutions such as the National Library of Medicine in the United States havedeveloped disaster risk reduction and readiness training, with the aim ofbuilding and achieving a stronger and resilient community.
The National Libraryof Medicine (2008) has developed virtual reality simulations, computer gamingand design technologies that reinforce the disaster preparedness training,resulting from the continuous development of technology. In the context of thePhilippines, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (2014)develops a National Disaster Response Plan, wherein response clusters, such asthe Food and Non – Food Items and the Protection Camp Coordination, are conducted regarding advocacy and propereducation. Accessible and safe evacuation centers, public health protectionservices and the use of food resources are amongst the several mitigationstrategies covered by the readiness plan. Fizri et al., (2014) highlight thenecessity of the incorporation of flood kits and life vests or jackets for eachfamily member.There is a need to investigate on the potential of a firstaid life vest on the mitigation of flood accumulated casualties to escape itsnegative impact.
Due to the significance of flood protocols and relatedequipment, it is implied that the inclusion of a first aid life vest indeveloping areas or rural communities would lessen the potential damage toproperty, loss of lives and injuries. First aid kits, life vests and otherfloatation devices are given emphasis during disaster preparedness campaignsresulting from the importance of possessingthese materials. These equipments pose disaster risk reduction and theapplication of disaster management strategies during an occurrence of a naturaldisaster or hazard. Proper knowledge and preparedness would decrease the numberof deaths and possible injuries, thus augmenting a more resilient community. In recent decades, several researchers have sought todetermine factors that would contribute to the mitigation of the aftermathbrought about natural disasters, particularly, flooding. Due to the increasingrates of mortality and morbidity in certain nations, focus has been given onthe rising issue, thus programs and advanced measures have been developed toprevent further detrimental losses among flood prone communities. In lieu withthis concern, Ohl et al., (2000) assert that majority of floods occur indeveloping areas, wherein there is a substantial impact on public health, alarge number of people dislocated, and a high number of deaths accumulated.
Thephysical properties and nature of the flood has also caused other negativeeffects such as the acquisition of endemic infectious diseases in developingareas. Inhumanitarian disaster related environments, Ozguven et al., (2007) argue thatlittle research is available regarding inventory management. A distinctionbetween commodities that are essential in any kind of disaster, and commoditiesthat focus on a specific kind of disaster must be done to determine theresponse – generated materials that can be kept in stock.
Due to the lack ofsufficient distinction between the two factors, the researchers have developeda stochastic model for safety stock levels of the respective commodities. Inaccordance to the previous study, Balcick et al., (2008) further differentiatethe classification between the two types of commodities, wherein the first typeconsists of critical mandatory items needed at the onset of a specificdisaster, while the second type is composed of regularly consumed commodities. Due to the lack of research on the field of inventorymanagement at the onset of the decade, Leeuw et al., (2009) aim to develop aframework of the logistical aspects of emergency preparedness in flood disasterprevention, consisting of four main aspects: demand management, supplymanagement, inventory management and resource management.
Each aspect is givena detailed emergency response plan that focuses on the logistic field anddecision making. In the aspect of inventory management, there is a need ondeciding inventory levels during disaster preparation for each of the selectedmaterials that are necessary. In addition, Sutton et al., (2006) integrate the developmentof disaster plans, evacuation plans and the acquisition of equipment andsupplies that reinforce response activities. The researchers claim that theseare substantial to the dimensions of preparedness of oneself, and the communityin a larger scale.
Several communities have integrated disaster risk reductionand management campaigns that would aid in combating the given issue. In arecent study conducted by Fizri et al., (2014), every household was advised toassemble a flood preparedness kit for each family member. The study highlightsthat the inclusion of life vests and other floatation devices, as well as itsproper usage, would promote better capacity building of flood affected ruralcommunities. Moreover, Maidl et al., (2015) claim that technology hascontributed to the visualization of natural hazards and flood risk informationdue to the development of the hazard maps.
Through the concept of flood riskcommunication, risk preparedness is raised by hazard maps that is madeaccessible to the public. With the utilization of hazard maps, inhabitants andproperty owners are given the responsibility in risk management. With the riseof technology, another innovative response has been introduced in the study byTsai et al.
, (2015), wherein the researchers have developed a flood protectiongame for disaster education. According to the study, the game benefits flooddisaster education through the cause of behavior change towards disasterpreparation. In the context of the utilization of a life vest or lifejacket, there have been several researches that focus on that specific field todetermine the advantages of its incorporation in disaster prevention,mitigation and in safety procedures. Quistberg et al., (2014) affirms that 85%of drowning incidents in boating, occur due to the lack of a life vest or lifejacket.
In addition, Maxim (2015) informs that sporting a life vest increasesthe probability of survival of individuals, long enough for them to be rescued.Furthermore, Viaroux (2016), further strengthens the previous claims for thereis an 80% chance of increased survivalwith the proper usage of the life vest. Majority of the related researchers have highlighted therelevance of the assimilation of disaster prevention strategic plans and emergencyresponse campaigns to the resilience of a community as a whole. Baan et al.,(2010) assert that for a society’s preparation, disaster management,improvement of humanitarian recovery and mitigation of casualties and flooddamages are necessary. The proper exploitation of flood related equipment wereincluded in several studies to highlight the aid these commodities bring totheir respective users. Iglesias (2010) expresses that emergency responseequipment, such as life vests and electricity generators are substantial toolsin increasing the risk reduction against natural disasters or hazards, alongwith safety action planning between communities.
Hence, in a study by Price(2008), the researcher emphasizes the importance of disaster management in decreasingpossible damage of property and casualties in urban areas. Therefore, civiliansmust be properly educated regarding the implementation of the given systems,strategic plans, and safety measures of their given community, for the lack ofeducation serves as a huge determining factor as seen in the study of Rambau etal., (2012).However, this view is challenged byrecent data showing. Bennett et al., (2013) suggest that laws regarding the useof life vests, exhibited behavioral change in the group members, particularly,amongst children. Reports have been gathered indicating the discomfort childrenexperience upon sporting the life vest, which eventually leads to theresistance of wearing it. The researchers have identified that an estimated 15%of drowning victims sported the proper use of floatation equipment, such as thelife vest.
Even with the inclusion of a life vest, a small quantity of boatpassengers drowned as shown in the given statistic. A large number of thepopulation refuse to wear the said floatation gear, which deserves as acontributing factor in the increase of injuries and casualties. but theexperiments were performed on recreational boaters, and therefore suspects adifference of results when applied to inhabitants of flood prone settlements.These approaches become increasingly unreliable when compared to theeffectivity of life vests amongst boaters for there would be an increase ininterest on the utilization of a life vest in disaster preparation for thethere is a higher risk of accumulating danger brought about by the devastationof the disaster.
A considerable amount of researchhas been made regarding the effectivity and importance of life vests and firstaid kits on flood preparedness and management, but little research focused onthe emergency response equipment themselves. Research has tended to focus oncertain systems and programs developed for the mitigation of flood casualties,rather than the development of innovative equipment that may aid the user attimes of disaster and peril. As a result, no comprehensive theory appears toexist. In spite of these early observations, the mechanism of the first aid kitthat is convertible to a life vest has remained unclear due to the lack ofsufficient information regarding the giventopic. The aim of this paper is to generatean emergency response equipment that would strengthen the capacity building ofcertain flood prone communities and mitigate the inimical effects prompted bythe given natural hazard. The researchers would look into the creation of ahandheld bag or first aid kit, crafted from the material of a floatationdevice, which enables its transformation to a life vest upon deconstruction.The study seeks to determine if an incorporated First Aid Life Vest would decreasethe rate of casualties of developing areas that are at risk upon the strike ofa disaster.
The researchers would test the effectiveness of the life vestthrough different clearance tests, which would guarantee its success and safetyupon proper usage. The purpose here is to document the innovative technology ofthe First Aid Life Vest that may benefit the community for commercial use onceapproved by the authorities. The study tested the capability andeffectiveness of the development of a First Aid Life Vest in the reduction offlood related fatalities. The study focuses on a strategy for the residents ofa specific community that are isolated by the high levels of flood posed by therepercussions of a disaster. The paper introduces a novel architecture forBarangay Daang Bakal, situated in the premises of Mandaluyong City, in theNational Capital Region of the Philippines.
This research presents data on theeffectiveness of the First Aid Life Vest upon its examination and testing. Thepaper proposes a formal procedure that would survey the interest of thespecified community regarding the integration of the First Aid Life Vest andtest the durability of the safety product through several tests, such as thescratch resistor test and the floatation test.