Sitting Bull, also known as T?at?á?ka Íyotake was born in 1831 on the Dakota Territory (Vestal). T?at?á?ka was not referred to as Sitting Bull until much later in his life. He was actually named Jumping Badger. It wasn’t until the age of 14 when T?at?á?ka accompanied his father and uncles along with other Lakota warriors in a raiding party to take horses from a group of crow warriors. During the successful raid Jumping Badger displayed great bravery and was able to “count coup”(history.com) on an unsuspecting crow warrior. Counting coup is the ability of one to deal a blow on an enemy but the most prestigious of these acts is to touch an enemy and escape unharmed (history.com). To count coup your life must be at risk. This is why Jumping Badger was treated to a feast upon return to the camp. Jumping Badger was also given the honor of having his father’s name bestowed upon him, T?at?á?ka Íyotake was. Sitting Bull was given a warrior’s horse, an eagle feather and a hardened buffalo hide to commemorate Sitting Bull’s passage into manhood and his identity as a Lakota warrior. During the Dakota War of 1862, which Sitting Bull and his people were not involved, many tribes of Dakota people killed hundreds of settlers and soldiers in Minnesota (Vestal). Despite the Civil War currently taking place in the United States. The United States army retaliated in 1863 and 1864, even those that were not responsible for the deaths of those killed in Minnesota. In 1864, 2200 soldiers attacked a village in which Sitting Bull and others defended (History.com). This battle is known as the battle of Killdeer mountain, this was the largest expedition carried out against a native population to this day. Although Sitting Bull and the lakota were driven out the fight was not over, and skirmishes were had up until August. Sitting Bull was killed on December 15th 1890 by reservation police, fearing that he was planning on fleeing to support the ghost dance movement. When a man open fired on the police they shot Sitting Bull in the head. Sitting Bull’s effect on American History was during and after the civil war. However, most of his great accomplishments came post-civil war. From 1866 to 1868, Red Cloud, a leader of the Oglala Lakota fought in opposition to US forces, attacking their forts with the intention to maintain their control of the Powder River in Montana (Vestal). In aid of him, Sitting Bull led numerous warfare parties against citadel Berthold, fort Stevenson, and fortress Buford and their environs from 1865 via 1868. Sitting Bull additionally made guerrilla attacks on emigrant parties and smaller forts throughout the upper Missouri area. By early 1868, the U.S. government preferred a non-violent agreement to red Cloud’s conflict. The United States agreed to Red Cloud’s needs that the United States abandon fort Phil Kearny and C.F. Smith. Gall of the Hunkpapa (alongside fellow natives of Dakota) signed the Treaty of castle Laramie on July 2, 1868 at citadel Rice (Vestal). Sitting Bull did not give in to the treaty. He instructed the Jesuit missionary, Pierre Jean De Smet, who sought him out on behalf of the authorities, “I desire all to recognize that I do not advocate to sell any a part of my united states” (history.com). He continued his hit-and-run attacks on forts within the upper Missouri location throughout the 1860s and early 1870s. The activities of 1866–1868 mark a historically debated period of Sitting Bull’s life. According to historians who carried out interviews with surviving Hunkpapa in 1930, Sitting Bull was declared “the supreme leader of the entire Sioux Nation” during this time. Later historians and ethnologists have refuted this idea of authority, because the Lakota society became relatively decentralized. Lakota bands and their elders made character selections, which decided whether to wage war or not. Sitting Bull’s band of Hunkpapa continued to assault migrating whites and forts in the late 1860s. Then in 1871 the Northern Pacific Railway carried out a survey for a path throughout the northern plains directly through Hunkpapa lands, Sitting Bull and the Lakota responded with great resistance (vestal). The same railway company returned the subsequent year with federal troops. Sitting Bull and the Hunkpapa attacked the survey party, which was forced to turn back as a result of Sitting Bull’s resistance. In 1873, for the last time, the rail road company returned again with even more men but were still unsuccessful against Sitting Bull and his men. The Panic of 1873 forced the Northern Pacific Railway into financial ruin. This halted production of the railroad via Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota territory (Vestal). After the 1848 locating of gold inside the Sierra Nevada and dramatic gains in new wealth from it, different people became interested about the potential for gold mining inside the Black Hills. In 1874, Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer led an army expedition from citadel Abraham Lincoln near Bismarck, to explore the Black Hills for gold and to determine a suitable vicinity for an army fort inside the Hills. Custer’s statement that there was gold within the Black Hills induced the Black Hills Gold Rush. Tensions increased among the Lakota and whites as many attempted to settle in the Black Hills. Even though Sitting Bull no longer attacked Custer’s excursion in 1874, the United States was pressured more and more to open the Black Hills to mining and settlement. Failing in an attempt to negotiate a buy or temporary ownership of the Black Hills, the federal government had to find a way to open the Black Hills up without breaking the promise to shield the Sioux and their land, because of the treaty signed in 1868 this would prove difficult (history.com). In November 1875, the President (Grant) ordered all Sioux bands to leave the black hills and to move onto the Sioux Reservation. Knowing that not all would comply Grant was able to label those who stayed as hostiles. So, on February 1st 1876, those who did not leave the Black Hills area were labeled as “hostile”. This certification allowed the navy to pursue Sitting Bull and other Lakota bands as “hostiles” (Sioux). Based on tribal oral histories, historians theorize many Lakota bands allied with the Cheyenne for the duration of the Plains Wars due to the fact they thought the other nation was at war with the United States. Since 1860, the Northern Cheyenne had led several battles among the Plains Indians. Prior to 1876, the U.S. military had destroyed seven Cheyenne camps. During the course of 1868–1876, Sitting Bull developed as one of the most important native American political leaders. After the Treaty of fort Laramie (1868) and the creation of the Sioux Reservation, many famous Sioux warriors, consisting of red Cloud of the Oglala moved to live permanently on this reservation (history.com). They had been in large part dependent for subsistence on the united states Indian agencies. Many different chiefs, which includes members of Sitting Bull’s Hunkpapa band along with Gall, would sometimes live on the reservation as well needing the support of the agencies as well. The depletion of buffalo herds decreased their assets and challenged native American independence. In 1875, the Northern Cheyenne, Hunkpapa, Oglala, Sans Arc, and Minneconjou camped together for a solar Dance (“Sitting Bull”). This ceremonial alliance happened before their fighting in 1876. Sitting Bull’s refusal to undertake any dependence on the United States’ authorities meant that at times he and his small band of warriors lived in a remote area on the Great Plains. When other native Americans had been threatened by the United States, they came to Sitting Bull’s camp to be safe. After the January 1st ultimatum of 1876, while the united states navy started out to tune down as hostiles those Sioux and others living off the reservation, native people gathered at Sitting Bull’s camp. He took an active role in encouraging this “harmony camp”. He sent scouts to the reservations to recruit warriors, and advised the Hunkpapa to proportion substances with the ones local americans who joined them. An instance of his generosity was Sitting Bull’s taking care of wood Leg’s Northern Cheyenne tribe. They were impoverished with the aid of Captain Reynold’s March 17, 1876 assault and fled to Sitting Bull’s camp for safety (vestal). Over the route of the first half of of 1876, Sitting Bull’s camp always improved, as natives joined him for safety in numbers. His management had attracted warriors and families, creating an extensive village envisioned at more than 10,000 humans. Lt. Col. Custer got here across this large camp on June 25, 1876. Sitting Bull did not take a right away military role in the resulting struggle. He acted as a non-secular chief. One week previous to the attack, he had carried out the solar Dance, in which he fasted and sacrificed over one hundred pieces of flesh from his palms (vestal). Custer’s seventh Cavalry attacked Cheyenne and Lakota tribes at their camp on the Little Big Horn River on June 25, 1876. The U.S. army did not realize how massive the camp had become. More than 2,000 native American warriors had left their reservations to flee and live with Sitting Bull. Despite being badly outnumbered Custer and his men attacked Sitting Bull and his followers (sioux). Custer’s badly outnumbered troops lost ground quickly and were forced to retreat. The tribes led a counter-attack in opposition to the soldiers on a close-by ridge, in the end, annihilating them. The native American’s victory celebrations were short-lived. Public surprise and outrage at Custer’s demise and defeat forced a response and an additional several hundred soldiers. The following year the brand-new forces pursued the Lakota, forcing most of the native Americans to surrender. Sitting Bull refused to give up and in 1877 led his band throughout the border into the North-West Territories, Canada (“Sitting Bull”). He remained in exile for four years close to wooden Mountain, refusing a pardon and the threat to go back. It wasn’t until July 19th, 1881 that Sitting Bull along with his family and followers returned and surrendered. Hunger and desperation had taken its toll. Sitting Bull would be transferred to Fort Randall where he would be held for almost three years as a prisoner of war. Finally, in 1883 Sitting Bull was allowed to return to the Standing Rock Agency (Vestal). Sitting Bull would live here peacefully until his murder in 1890, seven years later.

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