sensing unit, E memory is the energy consumed by thememory unit and E transceiver is the energy consumed by the transceiver unit.Sincenetwork lifetime is an important performance criterion Sensor nodes operate foryears. Energy consumption plays an important role in network lifetime.

Inworking with network mobility is an important factor. About 70% of network’senergy is consumed in data communication. By taking average of Received SignalStrength (RSS) values, transmission power can be enhanced by Cross-Layer designapproach for Power Control.  S.Muthurajkumar  etal 3 Two important aspects of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are Energyconsumption and security.

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Using trust management, key management, ?rewalls andintrusion detection security is provided in MANET. It is essential to considerthe energy and security aspects in routing algorithms since energy and securityare important for communication. Energy consumption can be reducedautomatically by the prevention of security attacks on routing protocols andcluster based routing.

Trust score evaluation, routing andthreshold setting using the trust values are the phases in trust based securerouting algorithm. In trust score evaluation process the trust score forindividual nodes are calculated based on constraints like nodes which aregenuinely sending their acknowledgement to neighbors when they received thepackets are treated as first group and the nodes which drop more packets are considered as and  the nodes which drop more packets areconsidered as group two nodes. Now, the initial trust score is computed usingthe Eq that represents the percentage of acknowledgements.  TS1i = (ACK / RP )* 100                                     (2)  ACK = No.

of acknowledgements sent to the neighbors , TS1i = First trustscore in percentage for ith node, RP = No. of packets received from neighbors second trust score is computed using Eq (3) which calculatesthe dropped packets TS1i = 100-((DP/ TDP) * 100)                              (3) DP = No. of packets dropped, TDP = Total number of packetsdropped in network. TS2i = Second trust score percentagefor ith node.

The overall trust score of the particular nodeis calculated using Eq. (4)     TSi= (TSli + TS2i) / 2                                         (4)  TS1i = First trust score for node i, TS2i = -Second trustscore for node I, TSi = Overall trust score for node i.  For developing a cluster based network aclustering scheme is developed with clusters.

A Cluster based Energy Ef?cientSecure Routing Algorithm (CEESRA) is proposed for providing effective routing.Malicious nodes can be avoided and detected using the trust score. A dynamicclustering technique not only uses low mobility nodes, energy consumption,trust values and distance parameters for providing the energy ef?cient securerouting algorithm. The proposed algorithm provides better performance in termsof packet drop ratio, residual energy, security and throughput when compared tothe existing techniques. N.Magadevi et al 4 The wirelessnodes have limited power resource in Wireless Sensor Networks.

To recharge thebatteries of the wireless nodes Wireless charging is an alternative. Using asingle mobile anchor a wireless recharging and also localization are proposed.Localization provides the position information. Static node is located by themobile anchor first and then it receives the battery level. Later static nodesare recharged if the static node battery is lesser than the threshold limit. Fundamentalunit of sensor network is sensor node.

It comprises of   sensors, microprocessor, transceiver , memoryand power supply. An Adhoc network with a collection of number of sensor nodesis Wireless Sensor Network. It is used in many ?elds like disaster rescue, intrusiondetection and in health care applications.

Gateway between the WSN and theother network is sink node. Noise Ratio (SNR), increased ef?ciency, improvedrobustness and scalability are the advantages in WSN. In designing WSN thereare several challenges like software development, deployment, localization,hardware design, routing protocol and coverage. For effective datacommunication and computation sensor node must be accurate. In the advancementof wireless sensor networks effective localization system must be developed.Rangefree localization algorithms do not require distance or angle measurements.Along with the wireless charging localization problem is addressed here. Sensorsenses the data and communicates with the base station through Multi hopcommunication.

In Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network an effective andcontrollable energy harvesting scheme is to be adopted. Thus proposed methodimproves the network’s lifetime. Wen-KuangKuo et al 5 The energyconsumption of battery-powered mobile devices can be increased by measured inbits per Joule for MANETs. By jointly considering routing multimediaapplications the energy ef?ciency (EE) is an essential aspect of mobile ad hocnetworks (MANETs). Based on the cross-layer design paradigm EE optimization is,traf?c scheduling, and power control a non convex mixed integer nonlinearprogramming is modeled as a problem. Branch and bound (BB) algorithm is devisedto ef?ciently solve this optimal problem.



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