Search operation #13 Source text A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM-BASED SPORTS ATHLETES Ruby Pawar, Head, Department of Psychology, K.
R. T. Arts, A. M. Commerce & B. H.
Science College, Nashik. Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune. Abstract The purpose of present research is to compare the emotional intelligence of team-based and individual sport athletes. In order to evaluate emotional intelligence, Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII) by Dr.
S. K. Mangal and Mrs. Shubhra Mangal was used which measures Inter-Personal Awareness, Intra-Personal Awareness, Intra-Personal Management, Inter-personal Management and Overall Emotional Intelligence. On collecting data and using (K-S) test and further making certain that the data is naturally distributed (P > 0.05), descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and independent ‘t’ test was used. The results clearly indicated that there is a significant difference in Inter-Personal Awareness, Inter- personal Management and Overall Emotional Intelligence among team and individual sport athletes.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Individual sports athletes, Team based sports athletes Introduction Research findings have shown that emotional experiences of athletes and the ability to control the destructive negative emotions is the major part of preparation of athletes. The results of studies conducted regarding the effective medalist athletes imply that among the effective factors impacting the performance of athletes, the ability to recognize, manage and express the feelings logically in stressful situations is highly important. On the other hand, according to development of different methods of exercise and techniques of skill execution, the quality of exercise sessions, flexibility, speed, high power and physical preparedness cannot singly guarantee the success of athletes and or teams, but development and improvement of mental preparedness and paying attention to factors such as self-confidence, awareness of one’s and others feelings, self-management, adequate emotional energy and emotion management would lead to transfer of learnt skills from exercise sessions to competition time in a positive manner. The results of studies conducted regarding identification of factors impacting athletes’ performance indicate that experience, skill level, concentration, presence of spectators, severe excitation, control center and hostile condition are of the most important variables impacting the performance of athletes particularly in sensitive events. But professional athletes apply different types of mental skills in order to control their competitive anxiety and facilitating high performance during competitions. Bois E.
(2009) in his research indicated that having excellent physical performance and possessing high level mental skills is necessary for the success of athletes. He believes that the athletes, who have different performance levels, would probably have different mental skills. The results of Pigozzie’s study (2008) indicated that genius athletes have good motivation and self-confidence through controlling competitive anxiety by mental skills (such as imaging, emotion control) but amateur athletes are faced with a significant decrease in their performance due to high anxiety during competitions. Hanton (2000) believes that Olympic athletes use mental skills particularly imaging and self-confidence for displaying an excellent performance, but amateur athletes, with the aim of reducing competitive anxiety in stressful conditions, apply mental skill techniques. Hanton and Connaughton (2002) based on their research on the impact of mental skills on the performance of swimmers reported that Olympic athletes are aware of positive impacts of mental skills on performance, so they apply imaging, positive self-talk and other previously successful methods and techniques in order to achieve success. Covassin (2004) considers emotional preparedness as a part of mental preparedness and believes that emotional preparedness has a significant role in decision making, proper performance, increase of morale and motivation of athletes and finally team efficacy improvement. Andrew et al (2006) in his study on investigating the relationship between emotional intelligence and behavioral features with performance of student athletes, believes that having balanced behavioral features such as controlling negative emotions and motivations in a proper level are the characteristics of superior athletes and states that emotional intelligence has a positive relationship with optimum performance and self- efficacy of superior athletes that separates the performance of these athletes from others in sensitive and important events.
Based on a research performed by Vassiliki (2009) on genius Taekwondo and Judo players, he reported that emotional intelligence has a direct relationship with excellent physical image and optimum performance and the athletes who have higher emotional intelligence, have higher performance by accepting the responsibility and mistakes of their teammates. Zizzi (2003) while confirming the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and performance believes that possessing social skills, undertaking the responsibility and mistakes of their teammates are of the most important characteristics of genius athletes. The researches of Gohm et al (2003) indicated that emotional intelligence of athletes increases self-efficacy and effectiveness by impacting on behavioral properties. Narimani (2009) believes that emotional intelligence impacts athletes’ performance and this impact in team sports is higher than that in individual sports and the athletes of the team that has higher emotional intelligence would achieve higher success compared to individual athletes. Perlini (2009) investigating the relationship between the impact of emotional intelligence on hockey players has reported that emotional intelligence is one of the effective mental skills on performance and self- efficacy of genius athletes that increases individual and team efficacy. Meyers (2007) reported that the understanding of team-mates, behavioral properties, self-confidence, concentration and emotional disorders are of the main factors impacting the performance of athletes. Therefore, in order to achieve optimum application of sport skills, possessing physical preparedness, skill preparedness, tactic and mental preparedness are very necessary. So, based on the importance of the positive impact of emotional intelligence on success, in present research, the level of emotional intelligence among individual and team sport athletes was compared.
Research methodology The present research aims to compare emotional intelligence of individual and team- based sport athletes. The sample consisted of 70 athletes, 35 of them are team-based sports athletes (Volleyball, Kabaddi, Football and Basketball) and 35 athletes are of individual sports (track and field, fencing, shooting, karate and swimming) from Nashik. Tool used Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII). This questionnaire measures 4 areas of emotional intelligence namely, Intra-personal Awareness, Inter-personal Awareness, Intra-personal Management and Inter-Personal Management on a Yes/No scale. The reliability of this test was examined by split-half method, K-R formula (20) and test-retest. The reliability coefficient was 0.89, 0.
90 and 0.92 respectively. After obtaining scores on the test and using (K-S) test and making certain of data natural distribution (P > 0.05), descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and independent ‘t’ test was calculated. Research findings 70 athletes from individual sports (track and field, fencing, shooting, karate and swimming) and team-based sports such as Volleyball, Kabaddi, Football and Basketball accepted to participate in this research.
The mean scores of Intra-Personal Awareness (19.26), Intra-personal Management (19.23) of individual sport athletes is higher than that of team sport athletes whereas the Inter-Personal Awareness (19.73), Inter-personal Management (20.63) and Overall Emotional Intelligence (77.69) of team sport athletes is greater than that of individual sport athletes (table1). Table1: The mean of 4 areas and Overall Emotional Intelligence of individual and team-based sports athletes Areas of Emotional Intelligence Individual athletes(n=35) Team athletes (n=35) M Sd M Sd Intra-personal awareness 19.26 2.
88 18.94 2.67 Inter-personal Awareness 16.31 4.
24 19.17 3.19 Intra-personal Management 19.23 2.62 18.94 3.65 Inter-personal Management 15.14 2.
79 20.63 2.38 Overall Emotional Intelligence 69.
94 6.32 77.69 7.05 The results of ‘t’ test indicated that there is significant difference between Inter- Personal Awareness (t = 3.19, P < 0.05), Inter-personal Management (t= 8.
86, P < 0.05) and Overall Emotional Intelligence (t = 4.84, P < 0.
05), between individual and team-based sport athletes; but no significant difference was observed in Intra-personal awareness and Intra-Personal Management (P > 0.05) (table 2). Table 2: A comparison of 4 areas of Emotional Intelligence of individual and team-based sports athletes Areas of Emotional Intelligence Std. Error M. differ ‘t’ Intra-personal awareness 0.66 0.
31 0.47 Inter-personal Awareness 0.90 2.86 *3.
19 Intra-personal Management 0.76 0.29 0.38 Inter-personal Management 0.62 5.49 *8.86 Overall Emotional Intelligence 1.60 7.
74 *4.84 *Significant ‘t’ value Discussion and Conclusion The results of present research demonstrated that there is significant difference in Inter-Personal Awareness, Inter-personal Management and Overall Emotional Intelligence of individual and team-based sports athletes. The team-based sports athletes scored higher than individual sport athletes in these three areas. So, the coaches and sport experts must apply psychological sport findings and develop the emotional intelligence of individual on applied manner in exercise sessions to improve their performance. The findings showed that though the individual athletes scored higher on Intra-Personal Awareness and Intra-Personal Management there was no significant difference between the individual and team-based sports athletes. Possibly since the success of individual athletes depends only to their performance, these athletes possess lower Inter-Personal Awareness, Inter-personal Management and Overall Emotional Intelligence than team athletes whose success depends to the performance of all team members.
Eric (1996) in his investigation of self-confidence impact on the performance of team and individual athletes reported that there is no significant relationship in competitive anxiety levels and self-confidence between male and female athletes. But when the athletes were studied based on nature of the sport field (team based and individual), it was observed that female athletes have more negative thinking and lower relaxation than their male counterparts that is consistent to the present research. Calmels (2002) in a similar research stated that the nature of sport (team based or individual) and the gender of athletes are of effective factors impacting their performance. He stated that individual athletes compared to team ones experience higher levels of negative thinking and self-talk whereas team athletes possessing better communicative skills have more ability in motivating their team mates. The findings of Zizzi’s research have indicated that experienced athletes induce their teammates for achieving the goals determined by coach through making effective communication to their teammates (social skills), encouraging and enhancing the role of inexperienced ones at the time of committing individual mistakes (empathy) and accepting and undertaking the responsibility and mistakes of their teammates (self-awareness and self-motivation).
In this research, a significant relationship was observed between emotional intelligence and athletes’ experience. Meyers (2007) stated that paying attention to emotional experiences of athletes and the ability of controlling it is a main part of preparation plan of Olympic and genius athletes and continued that understanding the teammates, anxiety, behavioral properties and emotional disorders are of the most important factors impacting athletes’ performance. Gohm (2003) believes that only 30% of athletes are aware of the impact of emotional intelligence on performance and apply it and team athletes use more social skills, empathy and self-motivation than individual athletes.
The psychologists and coaches of teams must incorporate emotional preparation strategies in order to modify and control negative feelings and enhance positive emotional modes in their coaching. References Andrew M. Lane, Richard Thelwell (2006).
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