Scotland is an antiquity because the history of the nation started its journey in the year of AD 81 with the Roman historian Tacitus. Rome took over some of Northern Britain, in other words, Southern Scotland. After conquering the land, his father-in-law, Cnaeus Julius Agricola, wanted to take over northern England in AD 83. Tacitus stated, “Britain conquered and then at once thrown away.” (MacLean, 10). With this in mind, Scotland enhanced in land and population by defeating the Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius. In AD 121, Emperor Hadrian builds a wall from Solway to Tyne to show sovereignty until Lollius Urbicus constructs the Antonine Wall from Forth to Clyde.

However, in AD 163, the Romans were already in control Trimontium and Hadrian’s Wall. In AD 208, Emperor Severus builds a Naval base at Cramond after multiple victories. Thus, after his death, the Romans abandoned that Antonine Wall and evacuate their bases. As a result, Scotland never became part of the Roman Empire.Around AD 430, after the evacuation of the Romans, Scotland was divided into four races including the Picts, Britons, Scots, and Angles. Each race converted to Christianity and a man named St.

Columba reestablishes and consolidates a monastery because the Scots were suffering a battle with the Picts over the loss of their king. Since this day on, Scotland organizes a monarchy with different rulers including the Duncans, Macbeth, the Williams, Malcolm, Davids, James Queen Margaret, and many other royals. In an attempt to maintain Scotland, each ruler died with recognition. For example, Robert the Bruce and Edward III signed the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton for Scottish independence in AD 1328. Bruce, being the hero of Scotland, unfortunately, died from leprosy at Cardross in June 1329, yet, he was recognized for his actions and attitude for his country (MacLean, 44). In the 16th century, Scotland was in chaos. James IV and many Scots were killed at Flodden, the Court of Session was established in AD 1532, James V died later after James IV and the Scottish King succeeds as the throne. James VI states, “This I must say for Scotland. I sit and govern it with my pen. I write and it is done, and by a Clark of the Council, I govern Scotland now, which others could not do by the sword” (MacLean, 109). He then becomes James I of England under the Union of the Crowns in AD 1603.

Around AD 1638, the Scottish Covenanters revolt against Charles I because he was in command of the Irish rebellion in which the Long Parliament showed mistrust. This lead to two Bishops’ Wars and three English Civil Wars from AD 1639 to AD 1649. As a result, Southern Scotland engaged with the English Commonwealth’s New Model Army and was victorious in the Battle of Worcester in AD 1651 over the Royalist field army. Later on, there was no military opposition to rule from London.The Jacobite Uprising first began in AD 1688. The Jacobites were supporters of the Stuart’s Royal House.

It all started when William of Orange landed in England with an army (MacLean, 139). James VII went to France and recognized William and Mary as King and Queen.In contrary, those in the Highlands, or the Jacobites who followed their monarch, favored James III to be a Dutch usurper (MacLean, 139). This created tension and under William’s control, he sent troops to stop the Jacobites. Even though the Jacobites lost, they continued to fight at the Battle of the Boyne to end James’s Irish campaign. In AD 1692, the Massacre of Glencoe occurred. The government offered several chiefs an oath of allegiance for protection and to show loyalty to James II.

Alexander MacDonald and another chief could not agree to the oath on a deadline of January 1 due to weather conditions. Therefore, King William took the opportunity to take advantage of MacDonald. The government later discussed military strategies with King William and the Master of Stair, John Dalrymple, to establish a similar Jacobite clan to take over the Highlands. However, the king had to deal with the Lowlands and England too, therefore, William was forced to discharge with the services of his Secretary of State.In the 18th century, the Battle of Culloden happened. The battle began when Prince Charles and his clan were followed by an English army led by King George II, Duke of Cumberland, into Scotland.

In the Lyon in Mourning textbook, it states, “It is certain enough that Barrisdale entered into terms with the Duke of Cumberland, that he received a protection for a certain limited time, and that he touched money; but whether or not he was sincere in the design of seizing the Prince…” (Paton, 82). In April 1745, the Prince decided to fight the English at Culloden Moor because his role was to invade Great Britain for nationalism. In addition, he wanted to fight the Hanoverian, or the “usurper,” King George II. As a result, Charles wanted to march to London from Derby to attack.

Thus, “With the two government armies behind them and a third army defending London, some Jacobites were worried they didn’t have enough support” (Dilemmas at Derby). Lord George Murray disagreed because, if another battle were to occur, the army would be weak and limited. The Prince then concluded by saying there was no aid from the English Jacobites.When the Highlanders began to contemplate, a government spy met the Duke of Cumberland before heading to Derby. The spy mentioned that there is “a supposed fourth force of 9,000 men at Northampton” (Dilemmas at Derby). With the following information, the Jacobites were persuaded to retreat and march to Derby.In 1746, Charles Edward Stuart decided to march to the Northside to reach Stirling and the army. He met up with an English General named Hawley and the Highlanders began to attack.

Charles did not reach his objective, yet, he continued to move up north. In the meantime, the Government sent out additional troops to assist Charles and the small army. Plus, while marching, Prince Charles notices that Cumberland has a powerful military force, twice in size, who were progressing on Inverness in AD 1746. Charles and the army finally reach to Culloden.

He gathered five thousand hungry, ill-equipped Highlanders and on April 15 or 16, Lord George Murray decided to overthrow their campground at night because he believed it would make the battle balanced and fair. Therefore, Highlanders wandered out for defense and returned to their base with a destroyed site. The Lyon of Mourning states more in detail, “The Prince marched his army in three columns from Culloden Muir to surprise the Duke of Cumberland in his camp at Nairn, ordering at the same time 2000 men to pass the river Nairn and post themselves between Elgin and the camp of the enemy.” (Paton, 102). By daytime, the Highlanders were extremely weak whereas Cumberland’s army was strong and healthy. The attack initiated and after an hour, the Prince ordered Lord George Murray to take charge because the Prince had limited plans.The battle itself was devastating for the Jacobites because the army was malnutrition and tired in comparison to Cumberland’s army and no support was provided as Prince Charles stated at Derby. Cumberland’s army was well-fed, rested, and had heavy weapons.

At the end, the Jacobites and Prince Charles were defeated by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland because of the spy who lied as an undercover during the 1745 Rebellion. The Prince, disappointed, “retired six miles from the field of battle, and next day arrived at Fort Augustus, where he remained all that day in expectation his troops would have to join’d him.” (Paton, 103).After the Battle of Culloden, or The 45, Charles Edward Stuart escaped the battlefield. During his escape, the government forces were searching for him for months throughout Western Highlands and the Isles. Prince Charles was nearly captured until Flora MacDonald found and saved him.

They discussed and the book quotes, “We then consulted on the immediate danger the Prince was in and could think of no more proper or safe place or expedient than to propose to Miss Flora to convey him to the Isle of Sky, where her mother lived” (Paton, 106). Since then, the Prince chose not to return back into the wilderness.Because of Prince Charles’s decision, Scotland, its peoples, and culture completely changed. Due to Prince Charles’s absence, the government agreed to make changes. Laws were passed on to prevent Highlanders to wear weapons or their clan color, Gaelic was not their native language anymore, the Clan System failed, and roads and forts increased (Where Did All the Highlanders Go?). This has influenced Scotland overall because the Highlanders decided to migrate far away leaving Scottish history behind.

As of now, Scotland avoided violence with England and the Scottish Government engaged in the Scottish National Party. If the spy did not lie at the Battle of Culloden, England could have been all of Scotland and if that happened, then every single event that happened would have been different. For example, the Gaelic language would continue today and the Highlanders can use bagpipes. In addition, Scotland could have been an independent country. If the past changed, the future would change greatly because history is based on learning from one’s mistake and avoiding them.

Therefore, Scotland has experienced multiple events to gain its own independence starting from the Romans to the British. Overall, Scotland continues to be an antiquity just like other countries around the world even though the nation is not fully dependent.


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