SATSIRU SYDNEY UNGADIB65/35080/2014 A Planning Research Project Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of theRequirement For the Award of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in Urban andRegional Planning Department of Urban and Regional Planning University of Nairobi1.
1 Overview Throughout the history of cities,transportation and land use have been closely linked. People settled in areasthat were amenable to access by the modes of transportation available at that time.As clusters of settlements grew, so did the need for better transportation facilities.Based on the new modes of transportation that became available, cities inturn developed. Land uses refer to humanuse of the earth’s surface, including the location, type and design ofinfrastructure such as roads and buildings. Land use patterns can have diverseeconomic, social and environmental impacts. Transport refersto the link between activity spaces. Transportation is defined as a means ofmovement of goods, persons and services from one point to another.
Hence itdoes not only involve the movement of vehicles. It is usually composed of originand destination of people, goods and services (Obiero, 1992). Transportation planning decisionsinfluence land use directly, by affecting the amount of land used for transportfacilities, and indirectly, by affecting the location and design of development.The distribution of land usesdetermines the location of human activities.
The distribution of humanactivities in space requires spatial interactions in the transport system toovercome the distance between the locations of activities. The distribution ofinfrastructure in the transport system creates opportunities for spatialinteractions (accessibility). The distribution of accessibility in spaceco-determines location decisions and so results in changes of the land-usesystemSuppose that a major transportationimprovement is planned.
The project could be a new link in the urban highwaysystem or a new mass transit facility. What impacts will the completed projecthave on land use? An issue that must be resolved firstis the geographical scope of the study. Will the effects of the transportationproject be only nearby in some sense, or will the effects be broader – possiblyaffecting the entire urban area? For example, will the transportation projectattract households and firms to its immediate area and cause reductions inother locations? On the other hand, can we safely assume that the negativeimpacts on other locations are negligible 1.2 Statement ofthe ProblemTransport and land use are closelyrelated and the development of new transport modes have for a long time led tothe development of the surrounding areas. This development should thus beanticipated and be planned for to support it such as provision of the necessaryinfrastructure needed.The launch of the first phase of theStandard Gauge Railway (SGR) marks one of the greatest milestones towards theachievement of Kenya’s Vision 2030. The last time a railway line wasconstructed in Kenya was between 1896 and 1901.The Metre Gauge Railway (MGR).
The trains that later used it were referred to as the Lunatic Express and hadlengthy delays and breakdowns. Since then, little effort has been made toimprove or even expand the Metre Gauge Railway.With the SGR passing at Emali Town,major impacts and developments are expected to take place in the town. Having astation at Emali means it can develop into a railway town. With the railwaystation being here means that many employment opportunities will be availablefor the residents in turn bringing about development of the area. An estimated 300 Kenyan youth have beentrained on railway technology courses in locomotive and rolling stockengineering, signalling, telecommunications control and transport management.Despite this, most people are still unemployed leading to lagging developmentin the area.In passing at Emali town, the SGR tooka huge chunk of land displacing many people and changing the land uses of whereit passed by.
When the SGR was being planned for, land use planning had not beencarried out on area and even when construction was being undertaken, land useplanning had not been done. The likely implications of this shortcoming includespeculation, unplanned and unbalanced development. The purpose of carrying out this studyat Emali town is to examine how the immediate land use was affected by theconstruction of the SGR. Most transport modes rely on land. The SGR lies on a472km stretch of land from Nairobi to Mombasa. Emali being a developing town canbe seen as a complex since it has various land uses yet it’s a small town. Withthe SGR passing by here, land use patterns changed since some people wereevicted from their lands which were on the path that the SGR would take.
Land use organization was not done, sopeople had encroached on the SGR land. With the construction of the SGRcompleted, Emali town is set to undergo major changesAll urban areas need basicinfrastructure facilities to realize sustainable development. These basicinfrastructure needs are mandatory to support other land uses in an urban areaand they include power supply, water supply, sewerage provisions, road worksand solid waste management facilities. Emali being a growing town would be agood area to investigate on how the SGR construction has had an impact on landuse for it also houses one of the eight train stations of the railway line.This report is a case study on theimplications of railway development on the surrounding land uses at Emali town.
The SGR was developed to help Kenya attain her Vision 2030, where Kenya shouldmaintain an economic growth rate of 10% yearly for the next 25 years. This canbe attained by increasing employment opportunities which has been made possibleby the SGR construction. The construction of the first Phase of SGR has createdmore than 35,000 direct and indirect local jobs. It is anticipated that theconstruction of SGR will continue to create more jobs and promote localenterprises. This is partly attributed to the government policy of ensuringthat 40 per cent of the labour, goods and services used in the construction ofSGR come from Kenya. This study is therefore relevant to researchers,physical planners and other relevant sectors who may wish to learn on impactsof railway development on land use. It can also be used in future as a casestudy to predict land use impacts on areas where the SGR is yet to pass andadvice the planners there accordingly. It can help planners find out the bestapproaches to achieve development objectives, enhance accessibility andconserve open spaces.
1.3 ResearchQuestions · What has been theexisting land use formation of Emali town before the Standard Gauge Railway? · What are theemerging land use formations of the town and their relationship to the StandardGauge Railway? · What are theplanning interventions to harmonize land-use planning and transportationplanning? 1.4 ResearchObjectives · To assess theexisting land use formation of Emali town before the Standard Gauge Railway. · To assess theemerging land use formations of the town and their relationship to the StandardGauge Railway. · To explore theplanning interventions to harmonize land-use planning and transportationplanning. 1.5 Assumptionsof the Study The assumptions of this study are thatconstruction of the Standard Gauge Railway will have significant impact on landuse along the railway corridor and within the town.
1.6 Justificationof the Study Transportation planning decisions canhave countless direct and the indirect land use influences. This study istherefore important as it will give a complete analysis of the impacts of theSGR on land uses and can help assimilate transportation and land use planningresulting in transport decisions that support land use objectives and land usedecisions that support transportation decisions. 1.7 Scope of theStudy The research will investigate on howconstruction of the SGR impacts land use patterns in Emali Town. The emergingtrends against the previously existing land use pattern will be studied tounderstand the degree of impacts.
The study will rely on both primary andsecondary sources of information.