Salovey and Mayer(1990) suggested that there is a possibility that some people might possessmore intelligence about emotions than others.
They defined Emotionalintelligence as ‚the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability tomonitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among themand to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions?. According to Wong and Law (2002), Emotionalintelligence consists of four abilities that include appraisal and expressionof own and other’s emotions, use of emotions and management of own and other’semotions. Zhou and George (2003)indicated that every individual has a different ability in rightly identifying,appraising and expressing his own emotions as well as the emotions that areexperienced by others. Some people are aware of the feelings they experienceand are more able to express their emotions whereas, some people unaware oftheir emotions therefore, they cannot express their feelings and emotions. Moreover, Sy, Tram andO’Hara (2006) indicated that a positive relationship exist between jobperformance and team members with a high Emotional Intelligence. The reason ofthis positive relationship is their high proficiency at appraising andregulating their own emotions which enables them to have higher level of faithin themselves.
This also gives them a power over themselves which results intheir decisions to make realistic actions leading to high performance and lesssupervisory interference. In comparison to this, teams having members with lowEmotional Intelligence are not that proficient at appraising and regulatingtheir emotions, so they require guidance from their managers in helping them tomanage in a better way and control their emotions which results in teamwork,coordination, creativity and adaptability.Many of the Emotionalintelligence abilities have been shown capable of influencing workplacebehaviors. For instance, Sosik and Megerian (1999) reported self-awareness tobe a contributing factor to a leader’s performance, whereas Martin, Knopoff,and Beckman (1998) considered emotional regulation to be a prerequisite for maintaining relationshipsin the workplace. Furthermore, Katzenbach and Smith (1993) pointed out the inorganizations, majority of tasks are generally completed by teams. It can beexplained in other words, groups of individuals complete the task that share asense of commitment to completing a task and also strive for synergy.Emotional intelligenceis strongly argued by Goleman, (1998a, 1998b) as a pre-requisite for successfulleadership. Leadership is concerned with the interaction of leaders in organizationwith other individuals.
All kinds of leadership such as transactional,transformational and charismatic leadership highly require the ability toinspire others as well as communication, coaching and team building skills(Mayer and Salovey, 1997).TransformationalLeadership is defined by Kent, Crotts, and Aziz (2001) as a process by whichchange or transformation is introduced to individuals and/or organizations.Transformational leaders exercise further impact by expanding and promotingtheir followers’ goals and providing them with the confidence to perform beyondthe expectations specified in the implicit or explicit exchange agreement(Dvir, Dov, Avolio& Shamir, 2002). Transformational leaders manifestcharismatic behaviors, arouse admiration, inspire, motivate, provideintellectual stimulation, and treat their followers with individualizedconsideration. Such behaviors transform their followers by inspiring them toreach their full potential and generate the highest levels of performance. There is subtletypresent between the placements of leadership versus management which can beapprehended in the contrast between clout versus muscle, dominance versusdomination, strength versus force, authority versus control. Transformationalbehavior is more often observed in leaders whereas transactional styles aremore common in managers (Bass &Riggio, 2006).
As Palmer, Walls,Burgess, and Stough (2001) stated, EI has fast become popular as a means foridentifying potentially effective leaders and as a tool for nurturing effectiveleadership skills. Their findings indicate that EI, which is measured by aperson’s ability to monitor and manage emotions within one’s self and inothers, may be an underlying competency of TL. TL is defined as “that activity whichstimulates purposeful activity in others by changing the way they look at theworld around them and relate to one another. It affects people’s personalbeliefs by touching their hearts and minds” (Nicholls, 1994, p. 11).Gardner and Stough(2002) found that the two underlying competencies of effective leadership arethe ability to monitor emotions in one’s self and in others.
Leaders whoconsidered themselves transformational not transactional reported that theycould identify their own feelings and emotional states, express those feelingsto others, utilize emotional knowledge when solving problems, understand theemotions of others in their workplace, manage positive and negative emotions inthemselves and others, and effectively control their emotional states.