Salovey and Mayer
(1990) suggested that there is a possibility that some people might possess
more intelligence about emotions than others. They defined Emotional
intelligence as ‚the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to
monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them
and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions?. According to Wong and Law (2002), Emotional
intelligence consists of four abilities that include appraisal and expression
of own and other’s emotions, use of emotions and management of own and other’s
Zhou and George (2003)
indicated that every individual has a different ability in rightly identifying,
appraising and expressing his own emotions as well as the emotions that are
experienced by others. Some people are aware of the feelings they experience
and are more able to express their emotions whereas, some people unaware of
their emotions therefore, they cannot express their feelings and emotions.
Moreover, Sy, Tram and
O’Hara (2006) indicated that a positive relationship exist between job
performance and team members with a high Emotional Intelligence. The reason of
this positive relationship is their high proficiency at appraising and
regulating their own emotions which enables them to have higher level of faith
in themselves. This also gives them a power over themselves which results in
their decisions to make realistic actions leading to high performance and less
supervisory interference. In comparison to this, teams having members with low
Emotional Intelligence are not that proficient at appraising and regulating
their emotions, so they require guidance from their managers in helping them to
manage in a better way and control their emotions which results in teamwork,
coordination, creativity and adaptability.
Many of the Emotional
intelligence abilities have been shown capable of influencing workplace
behaviors. For instance, Sosik and Megerian (1999) reported self-awareness to
be a contributing factor to a leader’s performance, whereas Martin, Knopoff,
and Beckman (1998) considered emotional regulation to be a prerequisite for maintaining relationships
in the workplace. Furthermore, Katzenbach and Smith (1993) pointed out the in
organizations, majority of tasks are generally completed by teams. It can be
explained in other words, groups of individuals complete the task that share a
sense of commitment to completing a task and also strive for synergy.
is strongly argued by Goleman, (1998a, 1998b) as a pre-requisite for successful
leadership. Leadership is concerned with the interaction of leaders in organization
with other individuals. All kinds of leadership such as transactional,
transformational and charismatic leadership highly require the ability to
inspire others as well as communication, coaching and team building skills
(Mayer and Salovey, 1997).
Leadership is defined by Kent, Crotts, and Aziz (2001) as a process by which
change or transformation is introduced to individuals and/or organizations.
Transformational leaders exercise further impact by expanding and promoting
their followers’ goals and providing them with the confidence to perform beyond
the expectations specified in the implicit or explicit exchange agreement
(Dvir, Dov, Avolio& Shamir, 2002). Transformational leaders manifest
charismatic behaviors, arouse admiration, inspire, motivate, provide
intellectual stimulation, and treat their followers with individualized
consideration. Such behaviors transform their followers by inspiring them to
reach their full potential and generate the highest levels of performance.
There is subtlety
present between the placements of leadership versus management which can be
apprehended in the contrast between clout versus muscle, dominance versus
domination, strength versus force, authority versus control. Transformational
behavior is more often observed in leaders whereas transactional styles are
more common in managers (Bass &Riggio, 2006).
As Palmer, Walls,
Burgess, and Stough (2001) stated, EI has fast become popular as a means for
identifying potentially effective leaders and as a tool for nurturing effective
leadership skills. Their findings indicate that EI, which is measured by a
person’s ability to monitor and manage emotions within one’s self and in
others, may be an underlying competency of TL. TL is defined as “that activity which
stimulates purposeful activity in others by changing the way they look at the
world around them and relate to one another. It affects people’s personal
beliefs by touching their hearts and minds” (Nicholls, 1994, p. 11).
Gardner and Stough
(2002) found that the two underlying competencies of effective leadership are
the ability to monitor emotions in one’s self and in others. Leaders who
considered themselves transformational not transactional reported that they
could identify their own feelings and emotional states, express those feelings
to others, utilize emotional knowledge when solving problems, understand the
emotions of others in their workplace, manage positive and negative emotions in
themselves and others, and effectively control their emotional states.