Roll No: 16837             Name: Sumia Ameer              Assignment Topic: Chlorine                                                                                             Peroxide           Subject:Mycology and Plant                                  Pathology                      Course Code: Bot-505   SubmittedTo: Mam Saqib Mahmood                        Chlorine Oxides Chlorine and oxygen also can bond in numerousways:·        chlorine monoxide, ClO2,chlorine(II) oxide·        chlorine dioxide, ClO,chlorine(IV) oxide·        chloroperoxyl, ClOO·        chlorine trioxide, ClO3,chlorine(VI) oxide·        dichlorine monoxide, Cl2O, chlorine(I) oxide3 dichlorine dioxides: ClO dimer, Cl2O2, chlorine peroxide chloryl chloride, ClO2Cl, chlorine(0,IV) oxide chlorine chlorite, ClOClO, chlorine(I,III) oxide                      Chlorine Peroxide              Names IUPAC name Dichlorine dioxide Other names Chlorine(I) oxide; ClO dimer Identifiers CAS Number ·         12292-23-8 3D model ·         Interactive image ChemSpider ·         109895 PubChem CID ·         123287 InChI SMILES Properties Chemical formula Cl2O2 Molar mass 102.905 g/mol Excluding where else noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C 77 °F 100 kPa).

Chlorine peroxide (alsoidentified as dichlorine dioxide or dimer) is a molecularcompound with method ClOOCl. Chemically,this is a dimer ofthe chlorine monoxide radical (ClO). It is dynamic inthe development of the ozone hole. Chlorine peroxide catalytically changes ozone into oxygen when it is visibleby infrared light.

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DimerA dimeris an oligomer containing oftwo fundamentally similar monomers joined by bondsthat can be each strong or weak, covalent and intermolecular. The term homo dimer is used when the twomolecules are similar and hetero dimer whenthey are not. The inverse of dimerisation is normally called dissociation. When two oppositely charged ions companion into dimers,they are stated to as Bjerrum sets.Ozone HoleOzone depletion defines two connected phenomena observed since the late1970.

A steady failure of about four percent in the tot al amount of ozone in Earth’s stratosphere and a much larger springtidediminution in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s freezing regions. Thelatter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. There are also spring time polar tropospheric ozonedepletion events in adding to these stratospheric phenomena.                                            ProductionChlorine peroxide can be produced by laser or infrared photolysis of thechlorine molecule with ozone.

 The lasers used to break up the chlorinemolecule into atoms can be an excimerlaser at 248, 308, or 352 nm wavelength. Difluorodichloromethane (CF2Cl2)can also act as a source of chlorine atoms for the formation of theperoxide. Microwave expulsion can also break up chlorine molecules intoatoms that react with ozone to style chlorine peroxide. ChemicalReactions    Cl2                   +           hv              ?               2Cl    Cl               +              O3                  ?     O2                +       ClO   2ClO         +             M             ?     ClOOCl    +       M   ClOOCl     +             h?            ?      Cl            +      ClO2   ClO2           +             M            ?       Cl             +       O2Dichlorodifluoromethane is a neutral gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbonhalomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.

Complying with the Montreal Protocol, its making was banned indeveloped countries in 1996, and rising countries in 2010 due to concerns aboutits damaging impact to the ozone layer. Its only allowed usage is asfire retardant in submarines and aircraft. It is solvable in many organic diluters.Dichlorodifluoromethane was one of the unique propellants for Silly String. R-12 cylinders are having white color.

Excimer LaserAn excimer laser, sometimes morecorrectly called an exciplex laser,is a form of ultraviolet laser which is normally help in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor built integrated circuits or “chips”, eye surgery, and micro machining.                            PropertiesChlorine peroxide rivets ultraviolet light with a maximum absorbingwavelength of 245 nm. It also engages longer wavelengths up to 350 nmto a lesser extent. This is important as ozone grips up to 300 nm. The Cl?O bond length is 1.704 Å, and the O?O bond is 1.426 Ålong. The ClOO bond angle is 110.

1, and the dihedralangle amongst the two Cl?O?O planes is 81Dihedral AngleA dihedralangle is the angle between two crossing planes. In chemistry it is the anglebetween planes through two sets of three atoms, having two atoms in common.In solid geometry it is definiteas the union of a line and two half-planes that have thisline as a common edge. In advanceddimension, a dihedral angle signifies the angle among two hyper planes. Chalorine Peroxide IsomersWe report ab initio calculations of themolecular structures of the various Cl2O2 isomers,transition states, vibrational frequencies and vertical excitation energies, aswell as the relative energies of the Cl2O2 isomerswith respect to 2ClO, ClOO + Cl and OClO + Cl dissociation channels employingup to the CCSD level of theory. Our best theoretical estimate for thedissociation wave number D ofchlorine-peroxide, dichloride-dioxide ClOOCl relative to 2ClO is 6825cm (including harmonic zero-point energy correction), compared to recentexperimental estimates in the range 5700–7000 cm, thus favouring the highervalues. The chlorine chlorite structure ClOClO is found to be weakly bound by ?3400 cm?1 with respect to 2ClO.

The chloryl chloride,chlorine peroxide ClClO2 is observed to be stabilised withrespect to the chlorine peroxide ClOOCl when large basis sets with diffusefunctions are used, and ClClO2 is predicted to be about hc700 cm?1 lower inenergy than ClOOCl (including harmonic zero-point energy correction). However,ClClO2 is not assumed to be significant for the ClOself-reaction due to the high barrier to association. The isomerisations appearalso unlikely under stratospheric conditions, as the transition statesoptimised at CCSD level of theory are found to lie high above the reactants. Wealso discuss the relation to recent research on parity violation andstereomutation tunnelling in this molecule.


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