Resource consumptiondrivers and pathways to reduction: economy, policy and lifestyle impact onmaterial flows at the national and urban scaleIn this study consumption of resource is focused innational (Sweden) scale and metropolitan (Stockholm and Gothenburg) scale forboth the fossil fuels and nonfuel resources for the period 1996-2011. MaterialFlow Analysis (MFA) method is used as a tool to analyse the study area, for thereason that MFA accounts both economic and social aspects.The result shows that material type resourceconsumption is similar for both country and city scales, fossil fuels andconstruction material are the dominant flows in cities. Fossil fuel consumptionhas been continuously decreasing in Stockholm where as it has been doubled inGothenburg during 2011 comparing to 1996.
The result also shows that resourceconsumption is also impacted by the lifestyle within the cities based on incomeand building energy has been reduced to halve. In conclusion, big steps towardslessening in resource consumption is needed.The changing metabolism ofcitiesIn this report data of metabolism studies from eightcities over 5 continents conducted various times since 1965 was collected andcompared, by bring together the data in consistent units. The studies dataincludes water, material, energy and nutrient flow from additional cities.
The result reveals that most of the city studiesexhibits increased per capita metabolism with respect to water, energy,materials and wastewater. Also it shows emission from air pollutant and changesin solid waste are mixed. The report also reviews the negative impact ofmetabolic processes on sustainability of cities, which are altered ground waterlevels, local material exhaustion, toxic material accumulation, summer heatisland and irregular nutrient accumulation.
The vitality of cities depends onspatial relationships with surrounding hinterlands and global resource webs. Onone hand increasing metabolism denotes deforestation, depletion of farmland,species diversity on the other hand urbanisation with more traffic andpollution. To conclude, further more urban metabolism studies are required (Christopher Kennedy, 2007)Thestudy of urban metabolism and its applications to urban planning and designAs mentioned earlier the development of urbanmetabolism concept was started by Wolman in the year 1965, from then 15-20complex studies of urban metabolism for different cities has been undertakenand done by many others like Zucchetto(1975) for Miami, Stanhill (1977) andOdum (1983) for Paris etc.
Wolman’s attention focused on system-wide effects ofthe consumption of goods and waste generation within the environment of urbanareas, when he studied an American city of 1 million population using nationaldata on food, water and fuel use along with production rate of waste, sewageand air pollution to determine per capita inflow and outflow rate (Decker, 2000)This article stresses on the real-world applicationsof urban metabolism which is enriched with data and have potential applications,such as quantifying urban GHG emission, estimating material stock and flow bymathematical models, urban metabolism as a tool to guide sustainable design.