Researcher are interested thatentrepreneurship as the means to remove the youth unemployment and also toimprove the financial stability at higher ages.
However, only few have examinedthe association between age and entrepreneurship activities. Some Previousstudies have explained the negative impact of age on entrepreneurship, butpositive impact of age over entrepreneurship activities, using cross sectionalstudy still need to discuss. We can develop a test model in which with passageof time perceived opportunity and skills increased which in turn increaseentrepreneurship activities, which explain the relationship of age andentrepreneurship activities. Here perceived opportunities and perceived skillsplay as mediating role between age and entrepreneurship activities. Research background.Entrepreneurship defined as the discovery,evaluation, exploitation of opportunities to create new and useful products andservices. (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000). According to previous study researchers havesuggested the relationship between age and entrepreneurship activities isnegative (Lévesque and Minniti, 2006).
However,this process is still underlying and largely unknown, with age relatedcharacteristics. Here we will contributeto this study by adopting lifespan perspective to examine and investigate thepositive role of age over entrepreneurship activities using the data from 2013Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM).According to thelifespan perspective ( Baltes 1987). Development is a lifelong process characterizedby both gains and losses in psychological characteristics. As we know whenpeople get older, some abilities such as physical strength decline whereasother abilities such as intelligence, knowledge and skills increase withpassage of time. Moreover at higher ages people usually accumulate higher humancapital which compensate for decreased physical abilities.
As a individualindulge himself in business long time he/she automatically get more newperceived opportunities and skills for business expansion. Perception of ownskills itself related to self efficacy which further describes an individual’sbelief to be capable of performing given tasks (gist 1987). As a self efficacybuilds on an individual’s assessment of own resources (Aizen.
1987; Gist andMitchell, 1992), it also associate to beliefs about goal-attainment. Thesebeliefs in turn perform vital rule in development of intentions and action (Boyedand vozikis, 1994).Moreover specifically only if individuals believe in havingthe necessary skills to attain a goal will they act upon it (Bandura, 1991).A new younger personjust started a business has less opportunity than the person who alreadydealing the business for long time as he has more intelligence, businessrelationship and links so he has moreperceived opportunities.
This focuses on business opportunity identification (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000),it is slightly different from the concept “focus on opportunities” from thelifespan literature (Zacheret al., 2010).Previous study has demonstratedthe importance of self efficacy, and the perception of skills, forentrepreneurial intention (e.g.,Boyd and Vozikis, 1994; Chen et al., 1998; Zhao et al., 2005; Wilson et al.
,2007). In a study by Chenet al. (1998) for example, an individual confidence in the ability tomaster entrepreneurial roles and tasks related positively to startupintentions. Similarly (Zhaoet al. 2005) says, that the desire to become a good entrepreneur isgrounded in high entrepreneurial self-efficacy.Research questionHow the age positivelyrelate with entrepreneurship activities?Or How the entrepreneurship activities increase the perceived opportunitiesand perceived skills with age?Ok ha ya tekDefinition of key conceptIt is possible thatentrepreneurship activities increases the perceived opportunities for example(once people engaged in entrepreneurship mindset the automatically andconstantly perceived new opportunities) second think perceived skills forexample (because of performance and handling the business for long time itenhance and create the self efficacy perceptions). As with ageintelligences and leadership abilities increase according to the theories ofleadership development literature and lifespan psychology literature andentrepreneurshipMethodologyMethodology in thisstudy related with GEM, where GEM is a global, standardized survey study.
Inyear 2013 it was being administrated and represented the sample age between 16–to -98 where M=40.55 and SD= 14.19 and number of participating country isN=70, where total of participants reflect 244471. In each country data wascollected and completed by professional firms which are further supervised bythe research institution. This project is also coordinated by GERA stand forGlobal Entrepreneurship Research Association. GERA monitors the data collectionand do care check of standardization and comparability of data collection.
GEMdata frequently use in academic research, as it also provides a ”majordatabase for internationally comparative entrepreneurship. (Bergmann, H. Mueller, S., andSchrettle, T. (2014).)DataThis is Secondarysource of data, 2013 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), Data forthis study is based on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) from 2013, it isthe recent publicly available dataset which is most likely to reflect currentdevelopments in entrepreneurship. The GEM is a global, standardized surveystudyObjectiveOur objective is toprove the positive impact of age over entrepreneurship activities, whereperceived opportunities and perceived skills playing as mediating role betweenage and entrepreneurship activities ReferencesAjzen,I.
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