Recently, the use of private vehicle constantly grew out. In orderto accommodate the increased private vehicle growth, a range of transportationdemands management measures have been studied to reduce private vehicle usage.Some of these measures are intended to improve the attractiveness ofalternative transport modes such public transport.
Public transport can bedefined as transport service which is available for use by the general publicsuch as bus, taxi, and rail-based transport. According to Oxford Dictionarypublic transport means the services that charge set fares such as buses, trains,and other forms of transport that is available to the public. A study by LeighGrover (2011) found that public transport mostly defined as the provision bystates, private owners, and corporations that could be enjoyed by the broaderpopulation.It is really important to increase public transport mode choice.There is a need to improve the quality of the public transport services such asaccessibility. However, this cannot be done without understanding people needsand their preference of using the public transport. There are many aspects thatshould be understood thoroughly and one of it is mode choice decision which isconsidered necessary for expecting the future growth for each mode.
Mode choicerefers to the process of where the means of travelling is determined. The meansof travel can be defined as the travel mode, which can be made by privatevehicle, public transport or active transport. A study by Ortuzar and Willumsen (2002) found that mode choicebehavior for public transport is an important element, because it provides thebasis for urban public transport planning and management policy making.According to Mandel et al.
(1997) it has a direct impact on the design oftransport system structure as it affects the overall efficiency with whichpeople can travel and the amount of space needed in order for transport to functions.A lot of effort needs to be taken in order to attract the users of privatevehicle to shift their mode choice to public transport. However it is not easyto influence mode choice decision as it depends on various factors.
Publictransport mode choice depends on the peoples’ choice and preference to use it(Jian Chen and Shoujie Li, 2017). It explains individual choice as theconsequence of preferences that an individual makes, with the assumptions thatthey choose the most preferred option that gives them benefit. Therelationship between mode choice decisions and the causal factors has beenexplored in many studies. A study by Koppelman and Pas (1980) found that publictransport mode choice not only influenced by the measurable factors such asage, gender, occupation, and others. However it also influenced by immeasurablefactors such as service quality. According to FitzRoy and Smith (1998) servicequality such as reliability, accessibility, comfort and many others is anotherdirect and powerful variable that influence the public transport usage.
Therefore, the ways public transport services are delivered as well as theirqualities are important as it affect the attitude and behavior of travelers ontheir mode choice decision. Moreover, Van Waerden et al. (2002) has stated thatthe mode choice decision also sensitive to unexpected occasions such as extremeclimate and significant changes in one’s individual life such as a change of houselocation. Generally, all these factors are likely to stimulate changes in modechoice decisions.On a daily basis, millions of passengers used and evaluated publictransport services. Although the unified principles and prevalence of publictransport service worldwide, there are significant differences in the perceivequality of public transport service provided.
There are many factorsinfluencing public transport mode choice, however for this study, theresearcher chose reliability, accessibility, and safety for its independentvariables. It has been supported by Silcock (1981), whereby it was founded thatthere are five major factors influence to public transport usage, namelyaccessibility, reliability, comfort, convenience and safety.Previous studies established thatreliability is one of the most vital aspects of service quality aspects bytravelers.
According to Carrel et al. (2015) public transport mode choice aresignificantly influenced by reliability of travel time based on personalexperienced. A deviation from schedule makes public transport unreliable.Unreliable public transport is a main constraint to existing and potentialpassengers (Ceder, 2016). It was also constantly ranked among the topinconvenience cause in passengers’ travel experience of public transport(Chakrabarti 2015). Hence, it is important to understand the concept ofreliability of public transport service as well as increase existing andpotential passengers’ trust of the public transport service.
A reliable public transport serviceis one that follows the schedule and whose service run on-time. Reliability canbe defined as a measure of the likelihood of a trip to take place in accordancewith the predicted trip elements, such as travel time, comfort and cost (Ap.Sorratini et al., 2008). In other words, according to Ceder (2016) reliabilityof public transport service can generally mean one that constantly operatesbased on its schedule or time table. It also can defined as level ofdependability on waiting time, riding time, passenger load, vehicle quality,safety, amenities, and information. Furthermore, Cham (2006) definedreliability as the availability and stability of travel attributes at a givenpoint influencing the passengers’ mode choice decision.
In order for a publictransport service to be reliable, it is vital to ensure that the service isalways on time and punctual. It can be reflect on its “on-time” performancewhere the schedule and actual trips is similar. In other words, on-timeperformance measures how well actual departures and arrivals follow thescheduled departures and arrivals. Acceptable delay or earliness of publictransport service depends on the perspectives of passenger. According to Cham (2006) it is not “on-time if the public transport departs early because it shows that passengers have to wait a fullheadway until the next public transport arrives. For instance, Diab et al.
(2015)stated that Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) practice1 minute early and 4 minutes late range of time to measure public transportservice on-time performance. In addition, Zeithaml (2009)mentioned that if the service is not continuously reliable, there is a chancethat passengers will not trust and confidence with its reliability and willswitch to other mode choice such as private vehicle.Headway also is animportant indicator of reliable public transport service. Headway is where thetime between two vehicles passing the same point traveling in the same way on agiven route.
Since passengers arrive randomly without consulting public transportschedule, headway is a good instruments to measure reliability for highfrequency route and service. According to Cham (2006) irregular headways leadto variability in expected waiting times. Decrease in the level of headway regularity has resulted inan impact that passengers experience known as “bunching” phenomena. Forinstance, bunching happen when the next bus are able to catch the previousscheduled bus. It reduces the predictability of the service since it increasesaverage waiting time for passengers. Therefore,it shows that the public transport service has a low level of reliability andfrequency. Next, reliability ofpublic transport service also depends on passengers’ wait or waiting time. Astudy by Furth & Muller (2006) found that wait time plays a crucial role ininfluencing demand of users and public transport service reliability as it isthe main influence factor for passengers from using public transport.
Inaddition, passengers give a greater value towaiting time than the value they give to in-vehicle time (Van Oort & Nes,2004). Constantly reduce the entire waiting andtravel time is the passengers’ perception of reliability (Diab et al., 2015). For instance, the public transport serviceis unreliable if the passengers have to spend more time to travel from their originalplace to the place of consumption.
Moreover, Psarros et al. (2011) concludesthat passengers perceive that they spend more time waiting for public transportthan the actual waiting period. Hence in order to attract more people to usepublic transport, it is important to minimize passenger waiting time since waittimes are part of travel time.
A growing and expanding urban metropolitan region is closelyrelated to the provision of sufficient and suitable transport services.According to Currie et al. (2007), Lucas (2005) and Lucas (2010) an expandingurban population needs access to participation in life opportunities in order toreach activities and services such as work, education, and social-recreationalactivities. There are many definitions of accessibility found in the literaturereview from previous studies.
However, there is no universally fixed and agreeddefinition of accessibility. Nevertheless, a general definition of accessibilityis refers to the easiness ofwhich a destination can be reached from the original location (Holden et al.,2005). According to Jean-Paul Rodrigue (2017), accessibility is defined as themeasure of the ability of a location to be reached by, or to reach differentlocations.The concept of accessibility in transport can be divided into twodifferent perspectives. As stated by Givoni & Rietveld (2007) andMoniruzzaman & Páez (2012) the first perspective is proximity relative tothe points of access to the public transport services both at origin anddestination. The proximity in accessing public transport is highly connectedwith the walking distance.
Accessibility to public transport is typicallyconsidered to be good if persons are within walking distance from a publictransport stop, station, or terminal to their destination. A study by Gutiérrez& García-Palomares (2008) found that walking distances of 0.40 km (400 m)are usually considered the maximum distance people are willing to walk and itinfluences people in choosing public transport as their mode choice. Inaddition, Alan T. Murray, Rex Davis, Robert J.
Stimson, and Luis Ferreira (1998)interpreted that the coverage distance of 400m represents a comfortable walkfor most people under common situations.There are various elements that are related with walking distancenamely density, diversity and design. These elements play a crucial role ininfluencing people to use public transport. According to R. Cervero &Kockelman (1997) it is associated with the build environment and usually calledthe 3D’s both at trip origin and destination. The characteristic of the builtenvironment including pedestrian rooftop, footways, lighting, bicycle parking rack,and many others which providesaccessibility has influenced public transport mode choice (Cervero et al.,2009; Handy et al.
, 2002; and Frumkin et al., 2004). Sufficient and appropriatebicycle and pedestrian accommodations or facilities has provided accessibilityfor the public transport users regardless of age, physical constraint, orincome. In a report of City of Bellevue Transportation Plan, found that thesefacilities has complement and public transport in a way that it connects”somewhere to somewhere” by conveniently serving the places where people live,work and play, and filling gaps in the public transport network.The second perspective refers to the easiness of using the publictransport service. It is associated with fares, special facilities, andinformation which all add to people’s ability and motivation to use publictransport.
Public transport fares must be made affordable for all differentlevel of people. According to Ferdous N et al. (2010) affordability generallyreferred to people’s financial ability to pay for or purchase transport-relatedservices and goods. The fares structure must not burden the passengers’especially low-income passengers as they have very limited transportationalternatives. If passengers are not able to pay for public transport service,then they cannot use it which it also leads to reducing their ability to accessother place such as for work. Passengers can access or use the public transportby increasing the affordability of public transport travel through targeteddiscounts and subsidies that reduce public transport fares relative to wages(Toronto Public Transport Association, 2013).
Next, as for accessibility for the disabled in using publictransport services, there are several factors that need to be taken into account.The disabled people and their relatives face more challenges and difficultieswhile travelling and using the public transport. Although there are manyadvances in transport systems in a country, the accessibility to the public transportservices still did not meet the requirements. Disabled people did not receivethe same treatment as the non-disabled (Kennedy and Hesla, 2008). Accessibilityfor disabled people can be improved by providing universal design and removingthe feature that creates a barrier. According to International Best Practice inAccessible Public Transportation for Persons with Disabilities (2010) disabledpeople use public transport as their mode choice if they are easily get to thebus stop, station and curbside. The disabled people must be easily aboard,locate and secure themselves in the vehicle.
The provision and easiness in accessing public transportinformation especially real-time information has been shown to encourageindividuals to choose public transport as their mode choice of travelling(Schweiger, 2003). A study by (Multisystem, 2003) found that real-time publictransport traveler information can result in a mode-shift to public transport.The requirements for accurate real-time information are increases especiallywith a large number of passengers transferring between different modes.Generally, real-time information can be defined as any information availablefor public transport users such as the up-to-date status of vehicles, includingpredictive arrival times and approximate locations.
Based on a study conductedin Hong Kong, it was found that passengers derived the greatest benefit fromreal-time information delivered via a mobile device or internet website. It isused as an individual-specific travel demand management tool that facilitatesindividuals while planning their public transport trips. Safety and security of public transport user is significantlyinterrelated with one another. It is important to ensure that public transportis safe and secure to operate and use as it closely relates with great numbersof passengers and their lives. Generally, safety can be defined as exposure toaccidental injury normally involving at least one vehicle as the instrumentcausing the injury.
While, transport security is known as exposure tointentional criminal or antisocial acts faced by transport user. According to(Cozens et al., 2004) the public’s perception ofsafety and security are important determinant of people’s mode choice. Publictransport is a relatively safe mode as it tends to have lower injury, death,crash, and crime rates as compared to private vehicle. Regardless of how safethe public transport, a lot of people still view public transport as dangerousand they also discourage others to use it.In order topromote public transport usage, it is important to pay more attention to thesafety of public transport although publictransport is usually safer to use as compared to private vehicle. According toSavage (2013) public transport has relative low crash rates than privatevehicle.
Crash from the perspectives of public transport refers to property injuries,damages and deaths caused by vehicle crashes. Normally, public transport crashinvolved with buses and taxi. A study by (Davidse et al., 2003) found that themost common types of crash are crashes involving blind spots, buses causingrear-end collisions while braking and crashes on bus lanes. Moreover, about 31%of fatal public transport accidents involve an impaired driver and 30% involvesspeeding (NHTSA 2012). However, there are still have other main risks beyondindividual drivers’ control, such as mechanical failures and faults by otherroad users.On the other hand, according to number of studies by Vander Reis (1997), Page et al. (2001), National Transport Survey (2003) and Stone(2006) found that crime and fear of crime has also impacted on the use ofpublic transport.
In addition, Crime Concern (2002) and Booz Allen Hamilton (2007)stated that fear of crime is now widely recognized as a constraint to usepublic transport. For instance, research in the UK has acknowledged that anadditional 10.5% of rail trips would be made if people felt safer and secure whentravelling and waiting at stations (Crime Concern, 2002). Pickpocketing, bagsnatching, stabbings, assaults, and rape are the most common types of crimeexperienced by the passengers. These incidents had all taken place near or atpublic transport location such as train stations, bus stops, taxi stands, or modalinterchanges, as well as in the public transport itself (Page et al, 2001).Hence, some people avoid using public transport due to undesirable areasof public transport such as stop, subway, or station (Stopher, Spear andSucher, 1974).According to Wallace et al. (1999) the mode choice also can beinfluenced by the design characteristics of a transport setting.
People are normallyfear of places where they do not have a clear line of sight of theirsurroundings. For example, when they may feel trapped with no possibilities toescape as well as when there are many corners or other objects behind which peoplecan hide. A study by Wilson & Kelling (1982) and Zelinka & Brennan (2001)found that tunnels, underpasses, and dark underground stations are usually morefeared than open public transport facilities. Plus, various studies on theperceptions of passengers in public transport have revealed that a number ofissues related to passengers’ risk perception about personal security.
Fear ofcrime in public transport in certain social groups is more obvious than others(Department of Transport, 2002). The study found that gender is the most importantfactor related to fear about victimization when using public transport services.Ever since the issue of women and transport become the highlight inpublic transport industry, gender has played vital role in influencing modechoice (Rosenbloom, 1978; Giuliano, 1983). Fear of victimization and crime is well-knownamong women as safety and security in public transport disproportionatelyaffect women.
A study by Loukaitou-Sideris (2008), Schulz and Gilbert (2000)found that one of the well-known reasons women shift their mode choice isbecause of fear of using public transport. Moreover, Gordon and Riger (1989) statedthat women are much more fearful of crime at public transport setting than men.This is because women are often subject to unwanted sexual contact in public transport.
For instance, asurvey by Tokyo Metropolitan Policy and East Japan Railway Company (2010) foundthat two-thirds of female passengers had been groped on trains. According toRoot et al. (2000) 53% of the woman in the UK felt unsafe waiting on a publictransport setting such as railway platform in the night and 10% in the day.
Furthermore, it was found that public transport user feel more unsafe walking to or waiting for the public transportunaccompanied during the dayand this number increased for night time (Department for Transport in the UK,1997). Therefore, Cozens et al., (2004) has concluded that safety has apositive relationship with mode choice decisions.