Recent studies on the nature of management have been based
on broader observation and research. The studies have also focused on the
diversity of management and the variation in the jobs that managers do. Among
the well-known experimental studies on the nature of managers jobs and how
managers spend their time, are by Henry Mintzberg, John Kotter. Fred Luthans
and Rosemary Stewart.  Construction management is a procurement route in
which the works are constructed by a number of different trade contractors.

 

These trade contractors are contracted to the client but
managed by a construction manager. Construction management is a route in which
the works is constructed by a number of different trade contractors.
Construction management is different to management contracting, as management
contractors place direct contract with works contractors, while construction
managers only manage the trade contracts, the contracts are place by the
client.

Construction managers are essentially proceeding as a
consultant to the client. The client takes all the risk for the contractor’s’
performance. In legal definition, the management contractor is proceeding as a
principal while the construction manager is proceeding like an agent.

Client is expected to place and administer the trade
contracts and therefore to accept price uncertainty, construction management is
only appropriate for experienced clients.

The construction manager is usually appointed as early as
possible in the design process so as to benefit from their experience for the
adjustment of the cost and the buildability of the proposed development. And,
to advise on selecting packages, the risk between packages and the selection of
the trade contractors.

Construction managers are usually appointed at the end of
the concept design stage. Appointing the construction manager at that stage may
enable early tendering on some trade packages, occasionally even before the
design is completed.  For example, piling, might commence whilst the
detailed design of above ground works continues. This can shorten the time
taken to complete the project, however it means that there will be price
uncertainty until the design is complete and all contracts have been let.

 

 

The services provided by a construction manager might
include:

 

Advising
on the development of the brief (if appointed at this stage).
Advising
on the procurement
route.
Advising
on appointments
(such as site
inspectors).
Advising
on the feasibility, interfaces, buildability,
cost and programming of the design.
Advising
on statutory
approvals.
Defining
key
performance indicators for trade
contractors.
Advising
on the need for mock ups, samples,
tests and inspections.

Acting
as the principal
contractor.
Cost
planning and cost control.

Preparing
a construction
programme and defining methods of working on site.
Identifying
potential trade
contracts.
Tendering trade
contracts.
Consenting
to subcontracting of work by trade
contractors.
Arranging
for site accommodation, welfare
facilities, fences, hoardings, roads and
walkways, drainage,
power and water supply.
Co-ordinating
setting
out.
Arranging
labour for certain site activities (such as cleaning).
Managing
site
inspectors.
Co-ordinating
the release of information.
Managing
and coordinating trade
contracts, including acting as contract
administrator, carrying out or coordinating inspections,
issuing instructions and certificates etc.
Co-ordinating
the work of statutory
undertakers.
Witnessing
tests and coordinating commissioning.

Collating
as-built information, building
owner’s manual, building user’s handbook, project
handbook, health
and safety file, pre-construction
information and construction
phase plan.
Monitoring
key
performance indicators.
Managing
the site.
Chairing
site progress meetings and preparing progress reports for the client.

 

Construction manager may be paid based on reimbursable costs
(such as site
facilities, staff costs, statutory fees,
offices and so on) and a management fee. Including pre-construction and
construction fees that may be fixed or calculated on an agreed formula.

It is essential to determine what is included in the
construction manager’s pay (for example insurance needs or payment of statutory
fees) and to decide on the limit of the construction manager’s authority in
handing out instructions which may affect the cost of the project

If the construction manager carries out a consultancy and
management role (unlike a traditional contractor), their selection could be on
similar terms as that of the consultant team.

 

A Construction manager may be required to hold a
professional indemnity insurance and to make available collateral warranties
for tenants, purchasers or funders. And collaborating with the consultant
team is important to the success of the project.

As construction managers tend to be appointed early in the
project, their appointment is unlikely to include a completion
date.

 

NB: The
Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB)
created a new profession of ‘Chartered Construction Manager’ in 2013.  CIOB’s use
of the term ‘construction manager’ is a much broader one than the contractual
definition described above. They describe construction
management as, ‘Management of the development, conservation
and improvement of the built
environment’. This might involve any role managing construction
activities, rather than the specific role of managing trade contractors
who are contracted to the client.

 

In a project management contract the company filling
the role supplies only the management and other professional services whereby
work is carried out under a series of direct contracts. The contract contains
obligations limited to managing and coordinating these individual direct
contracts, the drafting of which involve certain common difficulties. Compare
the contractual implications of using external consultants or internal teams
for project management.

 

 An internal consultant may give at first similar impression
as to an external consultant: a specialist that is employed to come up with
solutions for a specific organisational problem with aim to enhance the
performance of the organisation.

The two types of consultants can be employed in all
conceivable management and organisational areas. Areas such as strategic
planning to mergers and acquisitions, finance, organisation efficiency, process
improvement and technology. Comparable to external consultants, their vying
internal colleagues can work as advisors, change agent, execution facilitators,
coaches or trainers. The dissimilarity sits at the relationship with the client
organisation. Internal consultants are employees and therefore restrict
themselves to only full-time advisory within the organisation.

The key motivation for the emergence of internal consulting
is that organisations are in constant need of expertise from outside the
organisation. Therefore to reduce the reliance on third parts that charge
excessive amount of money, some organisations opt to develop their internal
consulting unit. The internal consultant report back to a central consulting
department, which appoints a number of employees from different business
department within the organisation to proceed with the project. Officially
everyone on the team is still employed by the organisation. But only the
consulting department works as an outsider since the consultants do not work
for that specific business unit.

 

The definition of internal consulting may be contingent to
the real size of the consulting market that may vary according to the orders of
magnitude. Only a small part of the typical ‘consulting’ roles works in formal
internal consulting groups. Several consulting and execution are dispersed over
a number of departments and function, altogether supporting internal client
with particular problems. Internal department such as Corporate Development,
Corporate Finance, Human Resources, Finance, Project Management Offices and IT
business units. In addition many employees fill the role of consultant as part
of their daily work without carrying the title of consultant. If these two
groups are added to the statistic then the internal consulting market would
easily exceed the value of the actual external consulting market.

The creation of the internal consultancy branches is not
only thought of reducing the cost but there are a number of other reasons
organisations build up internal teams or opt for internal over external
consultants. Porsche Consulting, which was initiated originally in automotive
company Porsche and nowadays offers advice to a wide range in the industrial
sector. There are innumerable other examples of consultancy firms growing out
from internal practices within big corporates such as GM, Philips and Shell, to
name a few.

Finally, developing an internal consulting department could
be an interesting way for an organisation to place themselves in the
consultancy market and therefore provide external consultancy to other
organisations. Additionally, External consultant build for themselves a good
reputation by working with specialised consultancy firms with the biggest names
in the market. And building on that track record are regarded to be credible
advisors. Internal consultants do not have this advantage.

Choosing for an option

Organisation that are confronted with the decision to either
build internal consultancy or hire external consultants should study the
advantage and disadvantages of building an internal consultancy team or
regularly hire consultant ahead of this issue arising. Also, the context in
which the choice should be made plays a big role in this.

In some cases hiring external consultants can be
advantageous, in case where deeply specialised knowledge is needed for a large
scale project. Or in case a third party opinion is needed on a problem. In some
case organisations don’t have in-house capacity to deal with a specific
problem. Internal advisors, on their side, know the organisation well and, for
example, are aware of what is taking place with the organisation – as they
speak the language of the organisation and understand the culture of the
professionals working there. Furthermore, hiring an external consultant can be
a more costly commitment, whereby an internal advisor, from a cost viewpoint,
could be the better choice. Internal advisors can, also, switch gears faster
within the organisation, if necessary.

Organisation should initially consider if an external
consultant can better be utilised for a specific problem, if it the case, how
much expertise is needed. Large organisations that have already build a
well-established internal consultancy department, the decision whether to
employ an external consultant is easily made. However, when a major (change)
project requires a large quantity of resources (human capital, specific
expertise), it can be easier to choose for external reinforcement

http://www.consultancy.uk/consulting-industry/external-vs-internal-consultants
accessed on 7 January 2018

Task 5 (Evidence for LO 3.3)

The management of the project by the project manager
involves:

The
leading of the team
Co-ordination
of the team members
Control
of the team
The
way that the project interfaces with the project environment.

Discuss the relationship that a project manager will
have with the design and production teams.

According to Harold Kerzner (2009 Ref 1), ‘project
management is much more behaviour based than quantitative, because
projects are managed by people’. Therefore the people such as the project team
and project managers that are relevant to the success or failure of the
project. The word ‘team’ can be used for any group of people who must
extensively collaborate with each other to achieve common objectives.

 

Team building

 

Roles and responsibility

 

Role and responsibilities matrix  

A Roles and Responsibilities Matrix can be utilised to plan
the roles and responsibilities within a project. This matrix may assist in
recognising the roles required, actions each person or groups will need to
undertake. It can also help to discover any gaps or if extra resources are
needed to complete the project. An evaluation can be undertaken to determine
whether extra resources are available within the organisation or whether new
external resource will be needed. As the project progresses a cleared
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) can be developed to identify which task
to assign to which person.

 

The project manager

 

The role and responsibility of the project manager are extensively
discussed in previous tasks, it’ll only be looked at in this section in
relation to other teams. The project manager (team leader) has to control and
guide resources while achieving performance targets such as standards, schedule
dates and cost. Project managers are responsible their team management through
guidance, motivation, output and control. They are also responsible for the
successful completion of the project by needed resources such as human,
financial and material resources at the appropriate time.

The project manager must show leadership as they are the
project integrator, planner and communicator. The project manager must have the
ability to work with others, using good communication, experience and
cooperation skills and have the aptitude to maintain control of the team and
the project.

 

Leadership Styles

 

As part of the team building process, the project manager
must earn his team trust by showing distinct leadership skills and management.
He/she must assume as a leader the role model for the team and become someone
that employees follow easily and willingly as he/she could deliver them the
means to achieve personal objectives.

There are different styles of management styles for
providing guidance, executing plans and inspiring people:

 

Autocratic
leaders make managerial decisions by themselves. They tell their employees
what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the
advice of their followers.
Consultative
autocrats use information from the members, but keep all substantive
decision-making authority to themselves.
Consensus
managers tend to throw open the problem to the group for discussion and
allow or encourage the group to make the decision.

Shareholder
managers, give the group the ultimate authority for the final decision.

 

Team members

 

Team members are inevitably different types of employees,
each with a different skill to contribute to the team. Their role can have
either a constructive or destructive role. Constructive role can motivate the
team towards achieving their objectives. Destructive roles can obstruct the
team to achieve their objectives.

Constructive roles may include: the originator, the
information seeker, the information giver, the encourager, the harmoniser, the
clarifier, the summariser and the gatekeeper.

Destructive roles include; the, the blocker, the withdrawer,
the recognition seeker, the topic jumper and the dominator.

And finally the devil’s advocate, who brings up alternative
viewpoints, can be positive or negative.

 

Conflict

 

Normally, organisation’s goals and objectives are
established by its senior management in conjunction with the organisation’s
value, purposes and missions.

The team members have to accept and apply these goals and
objectives even if their personal convictions or objectives differ considerably
with these.

Constructive conflict occurs when people change and grow
personally from the conflict, involvement of the individuals affected by the
conflict is increased and a solution to the problem is found.

Conflict occurs due to issues such as intersecting or
opposing goals, roles, authority, ideas, and personality etc.… Conflict is
unavoidable as projects are human driven enterprise, but it is not always
negative. Beneficial conflicts happen when people gain experience through that
conflict and involvement of the person affected by the conflict is amplified
and finally a resolution of the conflict is achieved.

Nevertheless, if a resolution of the conflict is quickly
achieved it can damage, endangering organisational unity, business
partnerships, team relationships, and interpersonal connections. Destructive
conflict happen if a resolution isn’t achieved and the conflict persists,
consuming energy away from important activities, have an impact on the team’s
moral or individual is destroyed, and groups of people or teams are polarised.

 

Conflict can arise between parties when:

 

They
have unclear work boundaries and role definitions (ambiguous
jurisdictions).
Parties
try to achieve different or inconsistent goals (conflict of interest and
personality).
Communication
difficulties create misunderstanding and the blocking of efforts to
explain needs, viewpoints and actions.
Disagreements
concerning scheduling and timing constraints.
Differing
ideas over the sequence of activities and tasks.
Differences
between and within the project team and
support groups.
Disagreements
over technical issues.

It is within the project manager’s responsibility to resolve
conflicts and avert destructive results. Depending on the project phase, the
situation, different existing powers can be used. For example; legitimate
power, coercive power, reward power, expert power and referent power.

https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Team_management_for_building_design_and_construction_projects  accessed on 7 January 2018