Question 1             Skinner really broadens the scope of the learning theory which leadsinto debates with other developmental theorists.

But, the major concern betweenSkinner and Piaget centered on behavioral change. Skinner, for example, hasalways expressed that behavior is followed by reinforcement options in society.He felt that children need immediate reinforcement to motivate them to learn. Whereas,Piaget was not a maturationist but he believed that behavior was not shaped bysociety instead of by the children themselves (Crain, 2011). Children in societywill utilize their sensory and motor skills to solve problems, decide on inconsistencieswith thinking, and make discoveries. The development will surface as a resultof the children’s interests and cognitive processes (Crain, 2011). So, thisleads to Piaget expressing that children have the desire to learn because thereare curious in nature. Question 2Bandura has always believed that learning in social situations is beyondall things that other learning theorists described (Crain, 2011).

Skinner, forexample, expressed that learning was a slow process and people will act to learn.But, Bandura disagreed because children in social situations tend to learn morequickly by observing others. Children will learn new behaviors all at once throughthe observation phase but the learning will be classified as cognitive. Skinnerdid not believe that the learning theory should include internal cognitivevariables (Crain, 2011).

Question 3Piaget has been involved inmany debates with Bandura than any other developmentalists. But, they both viewchildren as active agents who induce rules and grasp concepts (Crain,2011).  Bandura puts more emphasis on howthe environment, particularly models, influence the way children learn.

So, hedisagreed with Piaget’s theory especially two of Piaget’s beliefs of childdevelopment.  To begin, Bandura disagreedthat children learn and develop out of intrinsic concern for novel events (Crain,2011). Children will learn if adults motivate them and provide assistance.Also, it is important for adults to teach new things, offer rewards and punishments,and put positive models in children lives. Although children will becomeself-motivated learners, Bandura expressed that children have the desire tolearn in order to achieve their own standards. The internal standards arethemselves which is the result of social teaching and modeling influence(Crain, 2011).

Overall, Bandura disagreed with Piaget’s thought of intrinsicallymotivated learning. Next, Bandura disagreedwith the validity of the Piaget’s theory stages. It is believed that Piaget’sstages explain the importance of modeling. Many children are interested inmodels that portray positive behaviors above their current stage.

But, Bandurafelt that the stages are unreal. In the beginning, the stages seem to be realsince children follow in a sequence, however, children completed simple tasksbefore the hard tasks. It is implied by the stage concept that thinking isorganized into broad unitary structures but Bandura argued that it is not true(Crain, 2011). In reality, thinking is made up of distinct skills that differfrom one cognitive domain to another. Overall, Bandura expressed that Piaget’svision of development is false. Children will not learn by themselves andthinking will not undergo a broad stage transformation (Crain, 2011).Question4A  It is important for teachers to determine if children aregrasping the information being taught. But, many school systems have decidedthat standardized achievement and intelligence tests will help determine ifchildren are learning based on their results for reading and math grade leveltests, for example.

Theorist Vygotsky felt that conventional tests were inadequate(Crain, 2011). Conventional tests only measure what children achieve whenworking alone. Vygotsky was confident that children can complete tasks byreceiving help and support from others. An effective way to evaluate if a child is capable oflearning new skills is by determining how well the child performs withassistance (Crain, 2011).

Vygotsky considered this as the zone of proximaldevelopment. His vision for the zone of proximal development was to provideeducators with a greater indication of the child’s potential. For example,focusing on the activities children achieve with help, the zone will displaythe new abilities that are developing (Crain, 2011). Question 4B Vygotsky was a theorist who had the desire to createeffective educational practices which eventually became popular among many. Hefelt that education should be a challenge to the child’s current level in orderto accelerate development. However, Rousseau and others made it known that thisconcept will take opportunities away children causing them not to fully developtheir potentials at the present stage (Crain, 2011). So, it is important foryounger children to have an open-mind to receive the world and the richness ithas to offer. Adults should not stress children to become goal-directed.

Vygotsky expressed that the zone of proximal developmentwould promote that assistance from others is a good thing. When childrenreceive help, they will be able to solve problems beyond their level (Crain,2011).  However, Rousseau and otherdevelopmentalists felt that children receiving assistance will miss on the opportunitiesto make their own discoveries in the world. But, Vygotsky overlooked the extentin which assistance undermines the child’s independence (Crain, 2011).

          Question 5ADuring Freud’s oedipalstage, children are between 3 and 6 years old. Freud had a clear understandingof this stage among the boys than the girls. Boys in this stage were very curiousabout their male organ (the penis) since the organ is easily excitable and richin sensations (Crain, 2011). They even fantasize about kissing, sleeping, and evenmarrying their mother since she was considered as the main love object. As the boysgot older, they realized that the fantasy was inappropriate and they could not engagein those acts with their mother. According to Crain (2011), the lines were drawnfor the Oedipus complex when boys notice their father kissing, hugging, andsleeping with their mother. So, they will see their father as a rival for thelove and affection of their mother.  Freud expressed that boyscan resolve the oedipal situation through repression, identification, and thesuperego (Crain, 2011).

  To begin, boys cantuck away the sexual feelings for their mother into the unconscious and lovetheir mother in an appropriate manner. Next, boys can eliminate bitter feelingstoward their father and start acting more like him to have a good relationship.Lastly, boys can uphold the moral standards taught by their parent to help themcontrol the impulses and desires.

Basically, boys will criticize themselves forhaving bad behaviors and/or for having negative thoughts. In addition, boyswill rival their mother for affection and love of their father (Crain, 2011).As for the girls, Freudwas not sure on how the Oedipus complex will work for them. By age 5, girlsbegin to have negative feelings toward their mother due to lack of attentionshown (Crain, 2011). The girls felt that they did not receive the same amountof love and care as did as babies. Also, the girls realized that they do nothave the same organ (the penis) as the boys.

This caused the girls to blame theirmother because they felt unprepared for the world. Girls will overcome thebarriers and start enjoying the attention from their father. Many fathers donot show as much attention while their girls are in diapers but around the ageof 5, they will notice the cuteness and femininity (Crain, 2011). Girls will have fantasiesabout their father but will soon learn that she does not have sole rights tohim (Crain, 2011). The girls cannot marry or cuddle, hug, or sleep with theirfather as much. Their mother will become a rival since she can do all of thesethings with their father. Freud was puzzled on how girls can resolve the Oedipalcrisis.

The fear of losing parental love maybe the answer. Girls will represstheir desires, identify with their mother, and criticize themselves for havingthe impulses and wishes to institute a superego (Crain, 2011). Eventually,girls will dismiss the rival and incest fantasies. Question 5BFreud faced manycriticisms from critics but he felt that they refused his ideas due to theirown resistances and repressions (Crain, 2011).

 One major criticism stated that Freud’s theoryof Oedipus complex was culture-bound. Malinowski and other anthropologists madeit known that Freud’s theory was not perfect. According to Crain (2011), thefamily structure Oedipus complex is based on the mother, father, and child butis not found in every culture. Among the Trobriand Islanders, for example, therewere strong incest relations between brothers and sisters instead of childrenand parents as Freud insisted. Malinowski was appreciative for Freud stating thatrepressed wishes occur in projections like magic, dreams, and folklore (Crain,2011). But, projections varied based the cultural setting.

Freudians didattempt to join psychoanalytic and anthropological ideas.   ReferencesCrain,W. C. (2011) Theories of Development: Concept and Applications (6th ed.).Pearson Education.

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